Fomento Economico Mexicano SAB de CV
MEXICAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INC (Form: 20-F, Received: 04/16/2014 16:58:39)
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 16, 2014.

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013

 

Commission file number 001-35934

 

 

Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Mexican Economic Development, Inc.

(Translation of registrant’s name into English)

 

United Mexican States

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

 

General Anaya No. 601 Pte.

Colonia Bella Vista

Monterrey, NL 64410 Mexico

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

Juan F. Fonseca

General Anaya No. 601 Pte.

Colonia Bella Vista

Monterrey, NL 64410 Mexico

(52-818) 328-6167

[email protected]

(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and

address of company contact person)

 

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class:

      

Name of each exchange on which registered:

American Depositary Shares, each representing 10 BD Units, and each BD Unit consisting of one Series B Share, two Series D-B Shares and two Series D-L Shares, without par value      New York Stock Exchange
2.875% Senior Notes due 2023      New York Stock Exchange
4.375% Senior Notes due 2043      New York Stock Exchange

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

 

2,161,177,770

   BD Units, each consisting of one Series B Share, two Series D-B Shares and two Series D-L Shares, without par value. The BD Units represent a total of 2,161,177,770 Series B Shares, 4,322,355,540 Series D-B Shares and 4,322,355,540 Series D-L Shares.

1,417,048,500

   B Units, each consisting of five Series B Shares without par value. The B Units represent a total of 7,085,242,500 Series B Shares.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

x   Yes

   ¨   No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

¨   Yes

   x   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). N/A

 

¨   Yes

   ¨   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be file by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

x   Yes

   ¨   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large Accelerated filer   x

   Accelerated filer   ¨    Non-accelerated filer   ¨

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP   ¨

   IFRS   x    Other   ¨

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 

¨   Item 17

   ¨   Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

¨   Yes

   x   No

 

 

 


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

          Page  
INTRODUCTION      1   
   References      1   
   Currency Translations and Estimates      1   
   Forward-Looking Information      1   

ITEMS 1.- 2.

   NOT APPLICABLE      2   

ITEM 3.

   KEY INFORMATION      2   
   Selected Consolidated Financial Data      2   
   Dividends      4   
   Exchange Rate Information      5   
   Risk Factors      7   

ITEM 4.

   INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY      18   
   The Company      18   
   Overview      18   
   Corporate Background      19   
   Ownership Structure      22   
   Significant Subsidiaries      23   
   Business Strategy      24   
   Coca-Cola FEMSA      24   
   FEMSA Comercio      41   
   Equity Method Investment in the Heineken Group      46   
   Other Business      46   
   Description of Property, Plant and Equipment      47   
   Insurance      48   
   Capital Expenditures and Divestitures      49   
   Regulatory Matters      49   

ITEM 4A.

   UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS      57   

ITEM 5.

   OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS      58   
   Overview of Events, Trends and Uncertainties      58   
   Recent Developments      58   
   Operating Leverage      59   
   Operating Results      66   
   Liquidity and Capital Resources      72   

 

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

          Page  

ITEM 6.

   DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES      78   
   Directors      78   
   Senior Management      85   
   Compensation of Directors and Senior Management      87   
   EVA Stock Incentive Plan      88   
   Insurance Policies      88   
   Ownership by Management      89   
   Board Practices      89   
   Employees      90   

ITEM 7.

   MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS      92   
   Major Shareholders      92   
   Related-Party Transactions      92   
   Voting Trust      92   
   Interest of Management in Certain Transactions      93   
   Business Transactions between FEMSA, Coca-Cola FEMSA and The Coca-Cola Company      94   

ITEM 8.

   FINANCIAL INFORMATION      96   
   Consolidated Financial Statements      96   
   Dividend Policy      96   
   Legal Proceedings      96   
   Significant Changes      97   

ITEM 9.

   THE OFFER AND LISTING      98   
   Description of Securities      98   
   Trading Markets      99   
   Trading on the Mexican Stock Exchange      99   
   Price History      100   

ITEM 10.

   ADDITIONAL INFORMATION      102   
   Bylaws      102   
   Taxation      109   
   Material Contracts      111   
   Documents on Display      118   

ITEM 11.

   QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK      118   
   Interest Rate Risk      118   
   Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk      121   
   Equity Risk      124   
   Commodity Price Risk      124   

ITEM 12.

   DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES      124   

ITEM 12A.

   DEBT SECURITIES      124   

 

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Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(continued)

 

          Page  

ITEM 12B.

   WARRANTS AND RIGHTS      124   

ITEM 12C.

   OTHER SECURITIES      124   

ITEM 12D.

   AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES      124   

ITEM 13.- 14.

   NOT APPLICABLE      125   

ITEM 15.

   CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES      125   

ITEM 16A.

   AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT      127   

ITEM 16B.

   CODE OF ETHICS      127   

ITEM 16C.

   PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES      128   

ITEM 16D.

   NOT APPLICABLE      129   

ITEM 16E.

   PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS      129   

ITEM 16F.

   NOT APPLICABLE      129   

ITEM 16G.

   CORPORATE GOVERNANCE      129   

ITEM 16H.

   NOT APPLICABLE      131   

ITEM 17.

   NOT APPLICABLE      131   

ITEM 18.

   FINANCIAL STATEMENTS      131   

ITEM 19.

   EXHIBITS      132   

 

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INTRODUCTION

This annual report contains information materially consistent with the information presented in the audited financial statements and is free of material misstatements of fact that are not material inconsistencies with the information in the audited financial statements.

References

The terms “FEMSA,” “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our,” are used in this annual report to refer to Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V. and, except where the context otherwise requires, its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. We refer to our subsidiary Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V., as “Coca-Cola FEMSA,” our subsidiary FEMSA Comercio, S.A. de C.V., as “FEMSA Comercio,” and our subsidiary CB Equity LLP, as “CB Equity.”

The term “S.A.B.” stands for sociedad anónima bursátil , which is the term used in the United Mexican States, or Mexico, to denominate a publicly traded company under the Mexican Securities Market Law ( Ley del Mercado de Valores ), which we refer to as the Mexican Securities Law.

References to “U.S. dollars,” “US$,” “dollars” or “$” are to the lawful currency of the United States of America (which we refer to as the United States). References to “Mexican pesos,” “pesos” or “Ps.” are to the lawful currency of Mexico. References to “euros” or “€” are to the lawful currency of the European Economic and Monetary Union (which we refer to as the Euro Zone).

Currency Translations and Estimates

This annual report contains translations of certain Mexican peso amounts into U.S. dollars at specified rates solely for the convenience of the reader. These translations should not be construed as representations that the Mexican peso amounts actually represent such U.S. dollar amounts or could be converted into U.S. dollars at the rate indicated. Unless otherwise indicated, such U.S. dollar amounts have been translated from Mexican pesos at an exchange rate of Ps. 13.0980 to US$ 1.00, the noon buying rate for Mexican pesos on December 31, 2013, as published by the U.S. Federal Reserve Board in its H.10 Weekly Release of Foreign Exchange Rates. On April 4, 2014, this exchange rate was Ps. 13.0265 to US$ 1.00. See “Item 3. Key Information—Exchange Rate Information” for information regarding exchange rates since 2009.

To the extent estimates are contained in this annual report, we believe that such estimates, which are based on internal data, are reliable. Amounts in this annual report are rounded, and the totals may therefore not precisely equal the sum of the numbers presented.

Per capita growth rates and population data have been computed based upon statistics prepared by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática of Mexico (National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, which we refer to as INEGI), the U.S. Federal Reserve Board and Banco de México (Bank of Mexico), local entities in each country and upon our estimates.

Forward-Looking Information

This annual report contains words, such as “believe,” “expect” and “anticipate” and similar expressions that identify forward-looking statements. Use of these words reflects our views about future events and financial performance. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors that may be beyond our control, including but not limited to effects on our company from changes in our relationship with or among our affiliated companies, movements in the prices of raw materials, competition, significant developments in Mexico and the other countries in which we operate, our ability to successfully integrate mergers and acquisitions we have completed in recent years, international economic or political conditions or changes in our regulatory environment. Accordingly, we caution readers not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. In any event, these statements speak only as of their respective dates, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any of them, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

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ITEMS 1-2. NOT APPLICABLE

ITEM 3.       KEY INFORMATION

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

This annual report includes (under Item 18) our audited consolidated statements of financial position as of December 31, 2013 and 2012, and the related consolidated income statements, consolidated statements of comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011. Our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). Our date of transition to IFRS was January 1, 2011.

Pursuant to IFRS, the information presented in this annual report presents financial information for 2013, 2012 and 2011 in nominal terms in Mexican pesos, taking into account local inflation of any hyperinflationary economic environment and converting from local currency to Mexican pesos using the official exchange rate at the end of the period published by the local central bank of each country categorized as a hyperinflationary economic environment (for this annual report, only Venezuela). See Note 3.4 to our audited consolidated financial statements. For each non-hyperinflationary economic environment, local currency is converted to Mexican pesos using the year-end exchange rate for assets and liabilities, the historical exchange rate for equity and the average exchange rate for the income statement.

Our non-Mexican subsidiaries maintain their accounting records in the currency and in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the country where they are located. For presentation in our consolidated financial statements, we adjust these accounting records into IFRS and reported in Mexican pesos under these standards.

Except when specifically indicated, information in this annual report on Form 20-F is presented as of December 31, 2013 and does not give effect to any transaction, financial or otherwise, subsequent to that date.

 

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The following table presents selected financial information of our company. This information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto. The selected financial information contained herein is presented on a consolidated basis, and is not necessarily indicative of our financial position or results at or for any future date or period; see Note 3 to our audited consolidated financial statements for our significant accounting policies.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013 (1) (2)     2013 (2)     2012 (3)     2011 (4)  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos or millions
of U.S. dollars, except share and per share data)
 

Income Statement Data:

        

IFRS

        

Total revenues

   US$ 19,705        Ps. 258,097        Ps. 238,309        Ps. 201,540   

Gross Profit

     8,372        109,654        101,300        84,296   

Income before Income Taxes and Share of the Profit of Associates and Joint Ventures Accounted for Using the Equity Method

     1,915        25,080        27,530        23,552   

Income taxes

     592        7,756        7,949        7,618   

Consolidated net income

     1,692        22,155        28,051        20,901   

Controlling interest net income

     1,216        15,922        20,707        15,332   

Non-controlling interest net income

     476        6,233        7,344        5,569   

Basic controlling interest net income:

        

Per Series B Share

     0.06        0.79        1.03        0.77   

Per Series D Share

     0.08        1.00        1.30        0.96   

Diluted controlling interest net income:

        

Per Series B Share

     0.06        0.79        1.03        0.76   

Per Series D Share

     0.08        0.99        1.29        0.96   

Weighted average number of shares outstanding (in millions):

  

     

Series B Shares

     9,246.4        9,246.4        9,246.4        9,246.4   

Series D Shares

     8,644.7        8,644.7        8,644.7        8,644.7   

Allocation of earnings:

        

Series B Shares

     46.11     46.11     46.11     46.11

Series D Shares

     53.89     53.89     53.89     53.89

Financial Position Data:

        

IFRS

        

Total assets

   US$ 27,423        Ps. 359,192        Ps. 295,942        Ps. 263,362   

Current liabilities

     3,731        48,869        48,516        39,325   

Long-term debt (5)

     5,567        72,921        28,640        23,819   

Other long-term liabilities

     1,134        14,852        8,625        8,047   

Capital stock

     255        3,346        3,346        3,345   

Total equity

     16,991        222,550        210,161        192,171   

Controlling interest

     12,169        159,392        155,259        144,222   

Non-controlling interest

     4,822        63,158        54,902        47,949   

Other Information

        

IFRS

        

Depreciation

   US$ 672        Ps. 8,805        Ps. 7,175        Ps. 5,694   

Capital expenditures (6)

     1,365        17,882        15,560        12,666   

Gross margin (7)

     42     42     43     42

 

(*) We have not included selected consolidated financial data as of and for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2010, as we began presenting our financial statements in accordance with IFRS for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2012, with an official IFRS “adoption date” of January 1, 2012 and a “transition date” to IFRS of January 1, 2011. Based on such adoption and transition dates, we were not required to prepare financial statements in accordance with IFRS as of and for the years ended December 31, 2009 and 2010 and therefore are unable to present selected financial data in accordance with IFRS for these dates and periods without unreasonable effort and expense.

 

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(1) Translation to U.S. dollar amounts at an exchange rate of Ps. 13.0980 to US$ 1.00 solely for the convenience of the reader.

 

(2) Includes results of Grupo Yoli, S.A. de C.V. from June 2013, of Companhia Fluminense de Refrigerantes from September 2013, Spaipa S.A. Industria Brasileira de Bebidas from November 2013 and other business acquisitions. See “Item 4—Information on the Company—The Company—Corporate Background,” and Note 4 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(3) Includes results of Grupo Fomento Queretano from May 2012. See “Item 4—Information on the Company—The Company—Corporate Background,” and Note 4 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(4) Includes results of Grupo Tampico from October 2011 and from Grupo CIMSA from December 2011. See Item 4—Information on the Company—The Company—Corporate Background,” and Note 4 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(5) Includes long-term debt minus the current portion of long-term debt.

 

(6) Includes investments in property, plant and equipment, intangible and other assets, net of cost of long lived assets sold.

 

(7) Gross margin is calculated by dividing gross profit by total revenues.

Dividends

We have historically paid dividends per BD Unit (including in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs) approximately equal to or greater than 1% of the market price on the date of declaration, subject to changes in our results and financial position, including due to extraordinary economic events and to the factors described in “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors” that affect our financial condition and liquidity. These factors may affect whether or not dividends are declared and the amount of such dividends. We do not expect to be subject to any contractual restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, although our subsidiaries may be subject to such restrictions. Because we are a holding company with no significant operations of our own, we will have distributable profits and cash to pay dividends only to the extent that we receive dividends from our subsidiaries. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will pay dividends or as to the amount of any dividends.

The following table sets forth for each year the nominal amount of dividends per share that we declared in Mexican peso and U.S. dollar amounts and their respective payment dates for the 2009 to 2013 fiscal years:

 

Date Dividend Paid

   Fiscal Year
with Respect to  which
Dividend
was Declared
   Aggregate Amount
of Dividend
Declared
     Per Series B
Share  Dividend
     Per Series B
Share  Dividend (7)
     Per Series D
Share  Dividend
     Per Series D
Share  Dividend (7)
 

May 4, 2009 and November 3, 2009 (1)

   2008      Ps.1,620,000,000         Ps.0.0807       $ 0.0061         Ps.0.1009       $ 0.0076   

May 4, 2009

           Ps.0.0404       $ 0.0030         Ps.0.0505       $ 0.0038   

November 3, 2009

           Ps.0.0404       $ 0.0030         Ps.0.0505       $ 0.0038   

May 4, 2010 and November 3, 2010 (2)

   2009      Ps.2,600,000,000         Ps.0.1296       $ 0.0105         Ps.0.1621       $ 0.0132   

May 4, 2010

           Ps.0.0648       $ 0.0053         Ps.0.0810       $ 0.0066   

November 3, 2010

           Ps.0.0648       $ 0.0053         Ps.0.0810       $ 0.0066   

May 4, 2011 and November 2, 2011 (3)

   2010      Ps.4,600,000,000         Ps.0.2294       $ 0.0199         Ps.0.28675       $ 0.0249   

May 4, 2011

           Ps.0.1147       $ 0.0099         Ps.0.14338       $ 0.0124   

November 2, 2011

           Ps.0.1147       $ 0.0085         Ps.0.14338       $ 0.0106   

May 3, 2012 and November 6, 2012 (4)

   2011      Ps.6,200,000,000         Ps.0.3092       $ 0.0231         Ps.0.3865       $ 0.0288   

May 3, 2012

           Ps.0.1546       $ 0.0119         Ps.0.1932       $ 0.0149   

November 6, 2012

           Ps.0.1546       $ 0.0119         Ps.0.1932       $ 0.0149   

May 7, 2013 and November 7, 2013 (5)

   2012      Ps.6,684,103,000         Ps.0.3333       $ 0.0264         Ps.0.4166       $ 0.0330   

May 7, 2013

           Ps.0.1666       $ 0.0138         Ps.0.2083       $ 0.0173   

November 7, 2013

           Ps.0.1666       $ 0.0126         Ps.0.2083       $ 0.0158   

December 18, 2013 (6)

   2012      Ps.6,684,103,000         Ps.0.3333       $ 0.0257         Ps.0.4166       $ 0.0321   

 

(1) The dividend payment for 2008 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 4, 2009, with a record date of April 30, 2009, and the second payment was payable on November 3, 2009, with a record date of October 30, 2009.

 

(2) The dividend payment for 2009 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 4, 2010, with a record date of May 3, 2010, and the second payment was payable on November 3, 2010, with a record date of November 2, 2010.

 

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(3) The dividend payment for 2010 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 4, 2011, with a record date of May 3, 2011, and the second payment was payable on November 2, 2011, with a record date of November 1, 2011.

 

(4) The dividend payment for 2011 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 3, 2012 with a record date of May 2, 2012, and the second payment was payable on November 6, 2012 with a record date of November 5, 2012.

 

(5) The dividend payment for 2012 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 7, 2013 with a record date of May 6, 2013, and the second payment was payable on November 7, 2013 with a record date of November 6, 2013.

 

(6) The dividend payment declared in December 2013 was payable on December 18, 2013 with a record date of December 17, 2013.

 

(7) Translations to U.S. dollars are based on the exchange rates on the dates the payments were made.

At the annual ordinary general shareholders meeting, or AGM, the board of directors submits the financial statements of our company for the previous fiscal year, together with a report thereon by the board of directors. Once the holders of Series B Shares have approved the financial statements, they determine the allocation of our net profits for the preceding year. Mexican law requires the allocation of at least 5% of net profits to a legal reserve, which is not subsequently available for distribution, until the amount of the legal reserve equals 20% of our paid in capital stock. As of the date of this report, the legal reserve of our company is fully constituted. Thereafter, the holders of Series B Shares may determine and allocate a certain percentage of net profits to any general or special reserve, including a reserve for open-market purchases of our shares. The remainder of net profits is available for distribution in the form of dividends to our shareholders. Dividends may only be paid if net profits are sufficient to offset losses from prior fiscal years.

Our bylaws provide that dividends will be allocated among the outstanding and fully paid shares at the time a dividend is declared in such manner that each Series D-B Share and Series D-L Share receives 125% of the dividend distributed in respect of each Series B Share. Holders of Series D-B Shares and Series D-L Shares are entitled to this dividend premium in connection with all dividends paid by us other than payments in connection with the liquidation of our company.

Subject to certain exceptions contained in the deposit agreement dated May 11, 2007, among FEMSA, The Bank of New York, as ADS depositary, and holders and beneficial owners from time to time of our ADSs, evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs, any dividends distributed to holders of our ADSs will be paid to the ADS depositary in Mexican pesos and will be converted by the ADS depositary into U.S. dollars. As a result, restrictions on conversion of Mexican pesos into foreign currencies and exchange rate fluctuations may affect the ability of holders of our ADSs to receive U.S. dollars and the U.S. dollar amount actually received by holders of our ADSs.

Exchange Rate Information

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high, low, average and year-end noon exchange rate, expressed in Mexican pesos per U.S. dollar, as published by the U.S. Federal Reserve Board in its H.10 Weekly Release of Foreign Exchange Rates. The rates have not been restated in constant currency units and therefore represent nominal historical figures.

 

Year ended December 31,

   Exchange Rate
     High      Low      Average (1)    Year End

2009

     15.41         12.63       13.58    13.06

2010

     13.19         12.16       12.64    12.38

2011

     14.25         11.51       12.46    13.95

2012

     14.37         12.63       13.14    12.96

2013

     13.43         11.98       12.76    13.10

 

(1) Average month-end rates.

 

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     Exchange Rate  
     High      Low      Period End  

2012:

        

First Quarter

     Ps.13.75         Ps.12.63         Ps.12.81   

Second Quarter

     14.37         12.73         13.41   

Third Quarter

     13.72         12.74         12.86   

Fourth Quarter

     13.25         12.71         12.96   

2013:

        

First Quarter

     Ps.12.88         Ps.12.32         Ps.12.32   

Second Quarter

     13.41         11.98         12.99   

Third Quarter

     13.43         12.50         13.16   

Fourth Quarter

     13.25         12.77         13.10   

October

     13.25         12.77         13.00   

November

     13.24         12.87         13.11   

December

     13.22         12.85         13.10   

2014:

        

January

     Ps.13.46         Ps.13.00         Ps.13.36   

February

     13.51         13.20         13.23   

March

     13.33         13.06         13.06   

First Quarter

     13.51         13.00         13.06   

 

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RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Company

Coca-Cola FEMSA

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business depends on its relationship with The Coca-Cola Company, and changes in this relationship may adversely affect its results and financial condition.

Substantially all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sales are derived from sales of Coca-Cola trademark beverages. Coca-Cola FEMSA produces, markets, sells and distributes Coca-Cola trademark beverages through standard bottler agreements in certain territories in the countries in which it operates. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Territories.” Through its rights under Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements and as a large shareholder, The Coca-Cola Company has the right to participate in the process for making certain decisions related to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

The Coca-Cola Company may unilaterally set the price for its concentrate. In addition, under Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements, it is prohibited from bottling or distributing any other beverages without The Coca-Cola Company’s authorization or consent, and may not transfer control of the bottler rights of any of its territories without prior consent from The Coca-Cola Company.

The Coca-Cola Company also makes significant contributions to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s marketing expenses, although it is not required to contribute a particular amount. Accordingly, The Coca-Cola Company may discontinue or reduce such contributions at any time.

Coca-Cola FEMSA depends on The Coca-Cola Company to continue with its bottler agreements. As of December 31, 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA had nine bottler agreements in Mexico: (i) the agreements for Mexico’s Valley territory, which expire in April 2016 and June 2023, (ii) the agreements for the Central territory, which expire in August 2014 (two agreements) May 2015 and July 2016, (iii) the agreement for the Northeast territory, which expires in September 2014, (iv) the agreement for the Bajio territory, which expires in May 2015, and (v) the agreement for the Southeast territory, which expires in June 2023. As of December 31, 2013, we had four bottler agreements in Brazil, two expiring in October 2017 and the other two expiring in April 2024. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements with The Coca-Cola Company will expire for its territories in other countries as follows: Argentina in September 2014; Colombia in June 2014; Venezuela in August 2016; Guatemala in March 2015; Costa Rica in September 2017; Nicaragua in May 2016 and Panama in November 2014. All of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements are automatically renewable for ten-year terms, subject to the right of either party to give prior notice that it does not wish to renew the applicable agreement. In addition, these agreements generally may be terminated in the case of material breach. See “Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts—Material Contracts Relating to Coca-Cola FEMSA—Bottler Agreements.” Termination would prevent Coca-Cola FEMSA from selling Coca-Cola trademark beverages in the affected territory and would have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results and prospects.

The Coca-Cola Company has substantial influence on the conduct of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, which may result in Coca-Cola FEMSA taking actions contrary to the interests of its remaining shareholders.

The Coca-Cola Company has substantial influence on the conduct of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business. As of April 4, 2014, The Coca-Cola Company indirectly owned 28.1% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s outstanding capital stock, representing 37.0% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s shares with full voting rights. The Coca-Cola Company is entitled to appoint five of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s maximum of 21 directors and the vote of at least two of them is required to approve certain actions by Coca-Cola FEMSA’s board of directors. As of April 4, 2014, we indirectly owned 47.9% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s outstanding capital stock, representing 63.0% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s shares with full voting rights. We are entitled to appoint 13 of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s maximum of 21 directors and all of its executive officers. We and The Coca-Cola Company together, or only we in certain circumstances, have the power to determine the outcome of all actions requiring the approval of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s board of directors, and we and The Coca-Cola Company together, or only we in certain circumstances, have the power to determine the outcome of all actions requiring the approval of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s shareholders. See “Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts—Material Contracts Relating to Coca-Cola FEMSA—Shareholders Agreement.” The interests of The Coca-Cola Company may be different from the interests of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s remaining shareholders, which may result in Coca-Cola FEMSA taking actions contrary to the interests of its remaining shareholders.

 

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Changes in consumer preference and public concern about health related issues could reduce demand for some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products.

The non-alcoholic beverage industry is evolving as a result of, among other things, changes in consumer preferences and regulatory actions. There have been different plans and actions adopted in recent years by governmental authorities in some of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates that have resulted in increased taxes or the imposition of new taxes on the sale of beverages containing certain sweeteners, and other regulatory measures, such as restrictions on advertising for some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products. Moreover, researchers, health advocates and dietary guidelines are encouraging consumers to reduce their consumption of certain types of beverages sweetened with sugar and High Fructose Corn Syrup, or HFCS. In addition, concerns over the environmental impact of plastic may reduce the consumption of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products sold in plastic bottles or result in additional taxes that would adversely affect consumer demand. Increasing public concern about these issues, possible new or increased taxes, regulatory measures and governmental regulations could reduce demand for some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products which would adversely affect its results.

Competition could adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s financial performance.

The beverage industry in the territories in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates is highly competitive. Coca-Cola FEMSA faces competition from other bottlers of sparkling beverages, such as Pepsi products, and from producers of low cost beverages or “B brands.” Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes in beverage categories other than sparkling beverages, such as water, juice-based beverages, teas, sport drinks and value-added dairy products. Although competitive conditions are different in each of its territories, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes principally in terms of price, packaging, consumer sales promotions, customer service and product innovation. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Competition.” There can be no assurances that Coca-Cola FEMSA will be able to avoid lower pricing as a result of competitive pressure. Lower pricing, changes made in response to competition and changes in consumer preferences may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s financial performance.

Water shortages or any failure to maintain existing concessions could adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

Water is an essential component of all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products. Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water from various sources in its territories, including springs, wells, rivers and municipal and state water companies pursuant to either concessions granted by governments in its various territories or pursuant to contracts.

Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains the vast majority of the water used in its production from municipal utility companies and pursuant to concessions to use wells, which are generally granted based on studies of the existing and projected groundwater supply. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s existing water concessions or contracts to obtain water may be terminated by governmental authorities under certain circumstances and their renewal depends on receiving necessary authorizations from local and/or federal water authorities. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Water Supply.” In some of its other territories, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s existing water supply may not be sufficient to meet its future production needs, and the available water supply may be adversely affected by shortages or changes in governmental regulations and environmental changes.

We cannot assure you that water will be available in sufficient quantities to meet Coca-Cola FEMSA’s future production needs or will prove sufficient to meet its water supply needs.

Increases in the prices of raw materials would increase Coca-Cola FEMSA’s cost of goods sold and may adversely affect its results.

In addition to water, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most significant raw materials are (1) concentrate, which it acquires from affiliates of The Coca-Cola Company, (2) sweeteners and (3) packaging materials. Prices for sparkling beverages concentrate are determined by The Coca-Cola Company as a percentage of the weighted average retail price in local currency, net of applicable taxes. The Coca-Cola Company has unilaterally increased concentrate prices in the past and may do so again in the future. We cannot assure you that The Coca-Cola Company will not

 

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increase the price of the concentrate for sparkling beverages or change the manner in which such price will be calculated in the future. Coca-Cola FEMSA may not be successful in negotiating or implementing measures to mitigate the negative effect this may have in the pricing of its products or its results. The prices for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s remaining raw materials are driven by market prices and local availability, the imposition of import duties and restrictions and fluctuations in exchange rates. Coca-Cola FEMSA is also required to meet all of its supply needs from suppliers approved by The Coca-Cola Company, which may limit the number of suppliers available to it. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sales prices are denominated in the local currency in each country in which it operates, while the prices of certain materials, including those used in the bottling of its products, mainly resin, preforms to make plastic bottles, finished plastic bottles, aluminum cans and HFCS, are paid in or determined with reference to the U.S. dollar, and therefore may increase if the U.S. dollar appreciates against the currency of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. We cannot anticipate whether the U.S. dollar will appreciate or depreciate with respect to such currencies in the future. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Raw Materials.”

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most significant packaging raw material costs arise from the purchase of resin and plastic preforms to make plastic bottles and from the purchase of finished plastic bottles, the prices of which are related to crude oil prices and global resin supply. The average prices that Coca-Cola FEMSA paid for resin and plastic preforms in U.S. dollars in 2013, as compared to 2012 were lower in Central America, Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina, remained flat in Mexico and were higher in Colombia. We cannot provide any assurance that prices will not increase in future periods. During 2013, average sweetener prices, in almost all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories except Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Panama, were lower as compared to 2012 in all of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. From 2010 through 2013, international sugar prices were volatile due to various factors, including shifting demands, availability and climate issues affecting production and distribution. In all of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, other than Brazil, sugar prices are subject to local regulations and other barriers to market entry that cause Coca-Cola FEMSA to pay in excess of international market prices. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Raw Materials.” We cannot assure you that Coca-Cola FEMSA’s raw material prices will not further increase in the future. Increases in the prices of raw materials would increase Coca-Cola FEMSA’s cost of goods sold and adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s financial performance.

Taxes could adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

The countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates may adopt new tax laws or modify existing laws to increase taxes applicable to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

On January 1, 2014, a general tax reform became effective in Mexico. This reform included the imposition of a new special tax on the production, sale and importation of beverages with added sugar, at the rate of Ps.1.00 per liter. This special tax could have a material adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition and results; however, Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently working on taking the necessary measures with respect to its operating structure and portfolio in order to mitigate this negative effect. Moreover, similar to other affected entities in the industry, Coca-Cola FEMSA has filed constitutional challenges ( juicios de amparo ) against this special tax. We cannot assure you that these measures will have the desired effect or that Coca-Cola FEMSA will prevail in its constitutional challenge. In addition, the tax reform in Mexico, as applicable to Coca-Cola FEMSA, confirmed the income tax rate of 30%, eliminated the corporate flat tax, or IETU, imposed withholding taxes at a rate of 10% on the payment of dividends and capital gains from the sale of shares, limited the total amount of income tax paid or retained on dividends paid outside of Mexico and limited the total amount that can be deducted from exempt payments to employees. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Mexican Tax Reform.”

In Brazil, the federal taxes applied on the production and sale of beverages are based on the national average retail price, calculated based on a yearly survey of each Brazilian beverage brand, combined with a fixed tax rate and a multiplier specific for each different presentation (glass, plastic or can). Commencing on October 1, 2014 through October 1, 2018, the multiplier used to calculate taxes on soft drinks presented in cans and glasses will gradually increase per year from 31.9% and 37.2% to 38.0% and 44.4%, respectively, and the multiplier used to calculate taxes on energy and isotonic drinks presented in cans and glasses will gradually increase per year from 31.9% to 37.5%. The multipliers for other presentations of carbonated soft drinks, energy and isotonic drinks, such as plastic, cups and fountain, will not change.

 

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In 2013, the government of Argentina imposed a withholding tax at a rate of 10% on dividends paid by Argentine companies to non-Argentine stakeholders. Similarly, in 2013, the government of Costa Rica repealed a tax exemption on dividends paid to Mexican residents. Future dividends paid to Mexican residents will be subject to withholding tax at a rate of 15% in Costa Rica.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products are also subject to other taxes in many of the countries in which it operates. Certain countries in Central America, Mexico, Brazil, Venezuela and Argentina, also impose taxes on sparkling beverages. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Taxation of Beverages.” We cannot assure you that any governmental authority in any country where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates will not impose new taxes or increase taxes on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in the future. The imposition of new taxes or increases in taxes on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products may have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, prospects and results.

Regulatory developments may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

Coca-Cola FEMSA is subject to regulation in each of the territories in which it operates. The principal areas in which Coca-Cola FEMSA is subject to regulation are water, environment, labor, taxation, health and antitrust. Regulation can also affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s ability to set prices for its products. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters.” The adoption of new laws or regulations or a stricter interpretation or enforcement thereof in the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates may increase its operating costs or impose restrictions on its operations which, in turn, may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s financial condition, business and results. In particular, environmental standards are becoming more stringent in several of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, and Coca-Cola FEMSA is in the process of complying with these standards, although we cannot assure you that in any event Coca-Cola FEMSA will be able to meet any timelines for compliance established by the relevant regulatory authorities. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Environmental Matters.” Further changes in current regulations may result in an increase in compliance costs, which may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s future results or financial condition.

Voluntary price restraints or statutory price controls have been imposed historically in several of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Currently, there are no price controls on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in any of the territories in which it has operations, except for those in Argentina, where authorities directly supervise two of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products sold through supermarkets as a measure to control inflation, and Venezuela, where the government has imposed price controls on certain of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, including bottled water, and has recently imposed a limit on profits earned on the sale of goods, including Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, seeking to maintain price stability of, and equal access to, goods and services. If Coca-Cola FEMSA exceeds such limit on profits, it may be forced to reduce the prices of its products in Venezuela, which would in turn adversely affect its business and results of operations. In addition, consumer protection laws in Venezuela are subject to continuing review and changes, and any such changes may have an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA. We cannot assure you that existing or future regulations in Venezuela relating to goods and services will not result in increased limits on profits or a forced reduction of prices affecting Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, which could have a negative effect on its results of operations. The imposition of these restrictions or voluntary price restraints in other territories may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results and financial position. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Price Controls.” We cannot assure you that governmental authorities in any country where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates will not impose statutory price controls or that Coca-Cola FEMSA will not need to implement voluntary price restraints in the future.

In May 2012, the Venezuelan government adopted significant changes to labor regulations, which had a negative impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business and operations. The principal changes that impacted Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations are: (i) the requirement that employee terminations are now subject to governmental authorization; (ii) retroactive assessments for any modifications to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s severance payment system; (iii) a reduction in the maximum daily and weekly working hours (from 44 to 40 weekly); (iv) an increase in mandatory weekly breaks, prohibiting a reduction in salaries as a result of such increase; and (v) the requirement that all third party contractors participating in the manufacturing and sales processes of its products be included in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s payroll by no later than May 2015. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently in compliance with these labor regulations and expects to include all third party contractors to its payroll by the imposed deadline.

 

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In January 2012, the Costa Rican government approved a decree, which regulates the sale of food and beverages in schools. The decree came into effect in 2012. Enforcement of this law has been gradual since it started in 2012 and until 2014, depending on the specific characteristics of the food and beverage in question. According to the decree, the sale of specific sparkling beverages and still beverages that contain sugar, syrup or HFCS in any type of presentation in schools is prohibited. Coca-Cola FEMSA is still allowed to sell water and certain still beverages in schools. We cannot assure you that the Costa Rican government will not further restrict sales of other of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in schools in the future; any such further restrictions could lead to an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results of operations.

Unfavorable results of legal proceedings could have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results or financial condition.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations have from time to time been and may continue to be subject to investigations and proceedings by antitrust authorities, and litigation relating to alleged anticompetitive practices. Coca-Cola FEMSA has also been subject to investigations and proceedings on environmental and labor matters. We cannot assure you that these investigations and proceedings will not have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results or financial condition. See “Item 8. Financial Information—Legal Proceedings.”

Weather conditions may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results.

Lower temperatures and higher rainfall may negatively impact consumer patterns, which may result in lower per capita consumption of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverage offerings. Additionally, adverse weather conditions may affect road infrastructure and points of sale in the territories in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates and limit Coca-Cola FEMSA’s ability to sell and distribute its products, thus affecting its results.

Coca-Cola FEMSA conducts business in countries in which it had not previously operated and that present different or greater risks than certain countries in Latin America.

As a result of the acquisition of 51% of the outstanding shares of the Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, Inc., or CCBPI, Coca-Cola FEMSA has expanded its geographic reach from Latin America to include the Philippines. The Philippines presents different risks and different competitive pressures than those it faces in Latin America. In the Philippines, Coca-Cola FEMSA is the only beverage company competing across categories, and faces competition in each category. In addition, the per capita income of the population in Philippines is lower than the average per capita income in the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA currently operates, and the distribution and marketing practices in the Philippines differ from Coca-Cola FEMSA’s historical practices. Coca-Cola FEMSA may have to adapt its marketing and distribution strategies to compete effectively. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s inability to compete effectively may have an adverse effect on its future results.

Coca-Cola FEMSA may not be able to successfully integrate its recent acquisitions and achieve the operational efficiencies and/or expected synergies.

Coca-Cola FEMSA has and may continue to acquire bottling operations and other businesses. A key element to achieve the benefits and expected synergies of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s recent and future acquisitions and/or mergers is to integrate the operation of acquired or merged businesses into Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations in a timely and effective manner. Coca-Cola FEMSA may incur unforeseen liabilities in connection with acquiring, taking control of or managing bottling operations and other businesses and may encounter difficulties and unforeseen or additional costs in restructuring and integrating them into its operating structure. We cannot assure you that these efforts will be successful or completed as expected by Coca-Cola FEMSA, and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, results and financial condition could be adversely affected if it is unable to do so.

Political and social events in the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates may significantly affect its operations.

In April 2013, the presidential election in Venezuela led to the election of a new president, Nicolás Maduro Moros. In April 2014, the presidential election in Costa Rica led to the election of a new president, Luis Guillermo Solís. Also in 2014, Panama, Colombia and Brazil will hold presidential elections that will lead to the election of new presidents. The new administrations elected or to be elected in the countries in which we operate may implement significant changes in laws, public policy and/or regulations that could affect the political and economic conditions in these countries. Any such changes may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition or results.

 

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We cannot assure you that political or social developments in any of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA has operations, such as the recent civil disturbances in Venezuela, over which we have no control, will not have a corresponding adverse effect on the global market or on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition or results.

FEMSA Comercio

Competition from other retailers in Mexico could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio’s business.

The Mexican retail sector is highly competitive. FEMSA participates in the retail sector primarily through FEMSA Comercio. FEMSA Comercio’s OXXO stores face competition from small-format stores like 7-Eleven, Extra, Super City, Círculo K stores and other numerous chains of retailers across Mexico, from other regional small-format retailers to small informal neighborhood stores. In particular, small informal neighborhood stores can sometimes avoid regulatory oversight and taxation, enabling them to sell certain products at below market prices. In addition, these small informal neighborhood stores could improve their technological capabilities so as to enable credit card transactions and electronic payment of utility bills, which would diminish FEMSA Comercio’s competitive advantage. FEMSA Comercio may face additional competition from new market entrants. Increased competition may limit the number of new locations available to FEMSA Comercio and require FEMSA Comercio to modify its product offering or pricing. In addition, consumers may prefer alternative products or store formats offered by competitors. As a result, FEMSA Comercio’s results and financial position may be adversely affected by competition in the future.

Sales of OXXO small-format stores may be adversely affected by changes in economic conditions in Mexico.

Small-format stores often sell certain products at a premium. The small-format store market is thus highly sensitive to economic conditions, since an economic slowdown is often accompanied by a decline in consumer purchasing power, which in turn results in a decline in the overall consumption of FEMSA Comercio’s main product categories. During periods of economic slowdown, OXXO stores may experience a decline in traffic per store and purchases per customer, and this may result in a decline in FEMSA Comercio’s results.

Taxes could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio’s business.

Mexico may adopt new tax laws or modify existing laws to increase taxes applicable to FEMSA Comercio’s business. For example, a new decree amending and supplementing certain tax provisions, which became effective on January 1, 2014, provided that the income tax rate as applicable to FEMSA Comercio will remain at 30% for 2014 and subsequent years, instead of decreasing to 29% and 28% for 2014 and 2015 onwards as provided by the law before this reform. The 2014 amendments also increased the VAT rate applicable in the border regions of Mexico from 11% to 16% to match the general VAT rate applicable in the rest of Mexico, which could cause lower traffic or ticket figures for FEMSA Comercio. Furthermore, the 2014 amendments introduced two new excise taxes, the first one related to beverages containing sugar and the second one related to certain food products with high caloric content, including some that are sold at FEMSA Comercio stores, which could also cause lower traffic or ticket figures. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Mexican Tax Reform.”

FEMSA Comercio may not be able to maintain its historic growth rate.

FEMSA Comercio increased the number of OXXO stores at a compound annual growth rate of 12.4% from 2009 to 2013. The growth in the number of OXXO stores has driven growth in total revenue and results at FEMSA Comercio over the same period. As the overall number of stores increases, percentage growth in the number of OXXO stores is likely to decrease. In addition, as small-format store penetration in Mexico grows, the number of viable new store locations may decrease, and new store locations may be less favorable in terms of same store sales, average ticket and store traffic. As a result, FEMSA Comercio’s future results and financial condition may not be consistent with prior periods and may be characterized by lower growth rates in terms of total revenue and results. In Colombia, FEMSA Comercio may not be able to maintain similar historic growth rates to those in Mexico.

 

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FEMSA Comercio’s business may be adversely affected by changes in information technology.

FEMSA Comercio invests aggressively in information technology (which we refer to as IT) in order to maximize its value generation potential. Given the rapid speed at which FEMSA Comercio adds new services and products to its commercial offerings, the development of IT systems, hardware and software needs to keep pace with the growth of the business. If these systems became unstable or if planning for future IT investments were inadequate, it could affect FEMSA Comercio’s business by reducing the flexibility of its value proposition to consumers or by increasing its operating complexity, either of which could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio’s revenue-per-store trends.

FEMSA Comercio’s business could be adversely affected by a failure, interruption, or breach of our IT system.

FEMSA Comercio’s business relies heavily on its advanced IT system to effectively manage its data, communications, connectivity, and other business processes. Although we constantly improve our IT system and protect it with advanced security measures, it may still be subject to defects, interruptions, or security breaches such as viruses or data theft. Such a defect, interruption, or breach could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio’s results or financial position.

FEMSA Comercio’s business may be adversely affected by an increase in the price of electricity.

The performance of FEMSA Comercio’s stores would be adversely affected by increases in the price of utilities on which the stores depend, such as electricity. Although the price of electricity in Mexico has remained stable recently, it could potentially increase as a result of inflation, shortages, interruptions in supply, or other reasons, and such an increase could adversely affect our results or financial position.

FEMSA Comercio’s business acquisitions may lead to decreased profit margins.

During 2013, FEMSA Comercio entered into two new markets through the acquisition of two drugstore businesses and one quick service restaurant chain. Each of these businesses is currently less profitable than OXXO, and the acquisitions might therefore marginally dilute FEMSA Comercio’s margins in the short to medium term.

Risks Related to Our Holding of Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. Shares

FEMSA does not control Heineken N.V.’s and Heineken Holding N.V.’s decisions.

On April 30, 2010, FEMSA announced the closing of the transaction pursuant to which FEMSA agreed to exchange 100% of its beer operations for a 20% economic interest in Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. (which, together with their respective subsidiaries, we refer to as Heineken or the Heineken Group). As a consequence of this transaction, which we refer to as the Heineken transaction, FEMSA now participates in the Heineken Holding N.V. Board of Directors, which we refer to as the Heineken Holding Board, and in the Heineken N.V. Supervisory Board, which we refer to as the Heineken Supervisory Board. However, FEMSA is not a majority or controlling shareholder of Heineken N.V. or Heineken Holding N.V., nor does it control the decisions of the Heineken Holding Board or the Heineken Supervisory Board. Therefore, the decisions made by the majority or controlling shareholders of Heineken N.V. or Heineken Holding N.V. or the Heineken Holding Board or the Heineken Supervisory Board may not be consistent with or may not consider the interests of FEMSA’s shareholders or may be adverse to the interests of FEMSA’s shareholders. Additionally, FEMSA has agreed not to disclose non-public information and decisions taken by Heineken.

 

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Heineken is present in a large number of countries.

Heineken is a global brewer and distributor of beer in a large number of countries. As a consequence of the Heineken transaction, FEMSA shareholders are indirectly exposed to the political, economic and social circumstances affecting the markets in which Heineken is present, which may have an adverse effect on the value of FEMSA’s interest in Heineken, and, consequently, the value of FEMSA shares.

Strengthening of the Mexican peso compared to the Euro.

In the event of a depreciation of the euro against the Mexican peso, the fair value of FEMSA’s investment in Heineken’s shares will be adversely affected.

Furthermore, the cash flow that is expected to be received in the form of dividends from Heineken will be in euros, and therefore, in the event of a depreciation of the euro against the Mexican peso, the amount of expected cash flow will be adversely affected.

Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. are publicly listed companies.

Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. are listed companies whose stock trades publicly and is subject to market fluctuation. A reduction in the price of Heineken N.V. or Heineken Holding N.V. shares would result in a reduction in the economic value of FEMSA’s participation in Heineken.

Risks Related to Our Principal Shareholders and Capital Structure

A majority of our voting shares are held by a voting trust, which effectively controls the management of our company, and the interests of which may differ from those of other shareholders.

As of March 14, 2014, a voting trust, of which the participants are members of seven families, owned 38.69% of our capital stock and 74.86% of our capital stock with full voting rights, consisting of the Series B Shares. Consequently, the voting trust has the power to elect a majority of the members of our board of directors and to play a significant or controlling role in the outcome of substantially all matters to be decided by our board of directors or our shareholders. The interests of the voting trust may differ from those of our other shareholders. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions” and “Item 10. Additional Information—Bylaws—Voting Rights and Certain Minority Rights.”

Holders of Series D-B and D-L Shares have limited voting rights.

Holders of Series D-B and D-L Shares have limited voting rights and are only entitled to vote on specific matters, such as certain changes in the form of our corporate organization, dissolution, or liquidation, a merger with a company with a distinct corporate purpose, a merger in which we are not the surviving entity, a change of our jurisdiction of incorporation, the cancellation of the registration of the Series D-B and D-L Shares and any other matters that expressly require approval from such holders under the Mexican Securities Law. As a result of these limited voting rights, Series D-B and D-L holders will not be able to influence our business or operations. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions—Major Shareholders” and “Item 10. Additional Information—Bylaws—Voting Rights and Certain Minority Rights.”

Holders of ADSs may not be able to vote at our shareholder meetings.

Our shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, in the form of ADSs. We cannot assure you that holders of our shares in the form of ADSs will receive notice of shareholders’ meetings from our ADS depositary in sufficient time to enable such holders to return voting instructions to the ADS depositary in a timely manner. In the event that instructions are not received with respect to any shares underlying ADSs, the ADS depositary will, subject to certain limitations, grant a proxy to a person designated by us in respect of these shares. In the event that this proxy is not granted, the ADS depositary will vote these shares in the same manner as the majority of the shares of each class for which voting instructions are received.

 

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Holders of BD Units in the United States and holders of ADSs may not be able to participate in any future preemptive rights offering and as a result may be subject to dilution of their equity interests.

Under applicable Mexican law, if we issue new shares for cash as a part of a capital increase, other than in connection with a public offering of newly issued shares or treasury stock, we are generally required to grant our shareholders the right to purchase a sufficient number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentage. Rights to purchase shares in these circumstances are known as preemptive rights. By law, we may not allow holders of our shares or ADSs who are located in the United States to exercise any preemptive rights in any future capital increases unless (1) we file a registration statement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC, with respect to that future issuance of shares or (2) the offering qualifies for an exemption from the registration requirements of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933. At the time of any future capital increase, we will evaluate the costs and potential liabilities associated with filing a registration statement with the SEC, as well as the benefits of preemptive rights to holders of our shares in the form of ADSs in the United States and any other factors that we consider important in determining whether to file a registration statement.

We may decide not to file a registration statement with the SEC to allow holders of our shares or ADSs who are located in the United States to participate in a preemptive rights offering. In addition, under current Mexican law, the sale by the ADS depositary of preemptive rights and the distribution of the proceeds from such sales to the holders of our shares in the form of ADSs is not possible. As a result, the equity interest of holders of our shares in the form of ADSs would be diluted proportionately. See “Item 10. Additional Information—Bylaws—Preemptive Rights.”

The protections afforded to minority shareholders in Mexico are different from those afforded to minority shareholders in the United States.

Under Mexican law, the protections afforded to minority shareholders are different from, and may be less than, those afforded to minority shareholders in the United States. Mexican laws do not provide a remedy to shareholders relating to violations of fiduciary duties. There is no procedure for class actions as such actions are conducted in the United States and there are different procedural requirements for bringing shareholder lawsuits against directors for the benefit of companies. Therefore, it may be more difficult for minority shareholders to enforce their rights against us, our directors or our controlling shareholders than it would be for minority shareholders of a United States company.

Investors may experience difficulties in enforcing civil liabilities against us or our directors, officers and controlling persons.

FEMSA is organized under the laws of Mexico, and most of our directors, officers and controlling persons reside outside the United States. In addition, nearly all or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of our subsidiaries are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States on such persons or to enforce judgments against them, including any action based on civil liabilities under the U.S. federal securities laws. There is doubt as to the enforceability against such persons in Mexico, whether in original actions or in actions to enforce judgments of U.S. courts, of liabilities based solely on the U.S. federal securities laws.

Developments in other countries may adversely affect the market for our securities.

The market value of securities of Mexican companies is, to varying degrees, influenced by economic and securities market conditions in other emerging market countries. Although economic conditions are different in each country, investors’ reaction to developments in one country can have effects on the securities of issuers in other countries, including Mexico. We cannot assure you that events elsewhere, especially in emerging markets, will not adversely affect the market value of our securities.

 

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The failure or inability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or other distributions to us may adversely affect us and our ability to pay dividends to holders of ADSs.

We are a holding company. Accordingly, our cash flows are principally derived from dividends, interest and other distributions made to us by our subsidiaries. Currently, our subsidiaries do not have contractual obligations that require them to pay dividends to us. In addition, debt and other contractual obligations of our subsidiaries may in the future impose restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to make dividend or other payments to us, which in turn may adversely affect our ability to pay dividends to shareholders and meet its debt and other obligations. As of March 31, 2014, we had no restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. Given the 2010 exchange of 100% of our ownership of the business of Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Holding, S.A. de C.V. (formerly FEMSA Cerveza, S.A. de C.V.) (which we refer to as Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma or FEMSA Cerveza) for a 20% economic interest in Heineken, our non-controlling shareholder position in Heineken means that we will be unable to require payment of dividends with respect to the Heineken shares.

Risks Related to Mexico and the Other Countries in Which We Operate

Adverse economic conditions in Mexico may adversely affect our financial position and results.

We are a Mexican corporation, and our Mexican operations are our single most important geographic territory. Given the 2010 exchange of 100% of our FEMSA Cerveza business for a 20% economic interest in the Heineken Group, FEMSA shareholders may face a lesser degree of exposure with respect to economic conditions in Mexico and a greater degree of indirect exposure to the political, economic and social circumstances affecting the markets in which Heineken is present. For the year ended December 31, 2013, 63% of our consolidated total revenues were attributable to Mexico and at the net income level the percentage attributable to our Mexican operations is further reduced. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 the Mexican gross domestic product, or GDP, increased by approximately 5.1%, 4.0% and 3.9%, respectively, and in 2013 it only increased by approximately 1.1% on an annualized basis compared to 2012, due to lower government spending, lower remittances and a tough consumer environment. We cannot assure you that such conditions will not have a material adverse effect on our results and financial position going forward. The Mexican economy continues to be heavily influenced by the U.S. economy, and therefore, further deterioration in economic conditions in, or delays in recovery of, the U.S. economy may hinder any recovery in Mexico. In the past, Mexico has experienced both prolonged periods of weak economic conditions and deteriorations in economic conditions that have had a negative impact on our results.

Our business may be significantly affected by the general condition of the Mexican economy, or by the rate of inflation in Mexico, interest rates in Mexico and exchange rates for, or exchange controls affecting, the Mexican peso. Decreases in the growth rate of the Mexican economy, periods of negative growth and/or increases in inflation or interest rates may result in lower demand for our products, lower real pricing of our products or a shift to lower margin products. Because a large percentage of our costs and expenses are fixed, we may not be able to reduce costs and expenses upon the occurrence of any of these events, and our profit margins may suffer as a result.

In addition, an increase in interest rates in Mexico would increase the cost to us of variable rate debt, Mexican peso-denominated funding, which constituted 23% of our total debt as of December 31, 2013 (the total amount of the debt and the variable rate debt used in the calculation of this percentage considers converting only the units of investments debt for the related cross currency swap, and it also includes the effect of related interest rate swaps), and have an adverse effect on our financial position and results.

Depreciation of the Mexican peso relative to the U.S. dollar could adversely affect our financial position and results.

Depreciation of the Mexican peso relative to the U.S. dollar increases the cost to us of a portion of the raw materials we acquire, the price of which is paid in or determined with reference to U.S. dollars, and of our debt obligations denominated in U.S. dollars, and thereby negatively affects our financial position and results. A severe devaluation or depreciation of the Mexican peso may result in disruption of the international foreign exchange markets and may limit our ability to transfer or to convert Mexican pesos into U.S. dollars and other currencies for the purpose of making timely payments of interest and principal on our U.S. dollar-denominated debt or obligations in other currencies. The Mexican peso is a free-floating currency and as such, it experiences exchange rate

 

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fluctuations relative to the U.S. dollar over time. During 2010 and 2011, the Mexican peso experienced different fluctuations relative to the U.S. dollar of approximately 5.6% of recovery and 12.7% of depreciation compared to the years of 2009 and 2010 respectively. During 2012, the Mexican peso experienced an appreciation relative to the U.S. dollar of approximately 7.1% compared to 2011. During 2013, the Mexican peso experienced a depreciation relative to the U.S. dollar of approximately 1.0% compared to 2012. In the first quarter of 2014, the Mexican peso appreciated approximately 0.32% relative to the U.S. dollar compared to the fourth quarter of 2013.

While the Mexican government does not currently restrict, and since 1982 has not restricted, the right or ability of Mexican or foreign persons or entities to convert Mexican pesos into U.S. dollars or to transfer other currencies out of Mexico, the Mexican government could institute restrictive exchange rate policies in the future, as it has done in the past. Currency fluctuations may have an adverse effect on our financial position, results and cash flows in future periods.

When the financial markets are volatile, as they have been in recent periods, our results may be substantially affected by variations in exchange rates and commodity prices, and to a lesser degree, interest rates. These effects include foreign exchange gain and loss on assets and liabilities denominated in U.S. dollars, fair value gain and loss on derivative financial instruments, commodities prices and changes in interest income and interest expense. These effects can be much more volatile than our operating performance and our operating cash flows.

Political events in Mexico could adversely affect our operations.

Mexican political events may significantly affect our operations. Presidential elections in Mexico occur every six years, with the most recent one occurring in July 2012. Enrique Peña Nieto, a member of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional, was elected as the new president of Mexico and took office on December 1, 2012. As with any governmental change, the new government may lead to significant changes in governmental policies, may contribute to economic uncertainty and to heightened volatility of the Mexican capital markets and securities issued by Mexican companies. Currently, no single party has a majority in the Senate or the Cámara de Diputados (House of Representatives), and the absence of a clear majority by a single party could result in government gridlock and political uncertainty. While the Mexican Congress has recently approved a number of structural reforms intended to modernize certain sectors of and foster growth in the Mexican economy, we cannot provide any assurances that political developments in Mexico, over which we have no control, will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results and prospects.

Security risks in Mexico could increase, and this could adversely affect our results.

The presence of violence among drug cartels, and between these and the Mexican law enforcement and armed forces, pose a risk to our business. Organized criminal activity and related violent incidents have decreased relative to 2011 and 2012, but remain prevalent. These incidents are relatively concentrated along the northern Mexican border, as well as in certain other Mexican states such as Sinaloa, Michoacán and Guerrero. The north of Mexico is an important region for our retail operations, and an increase in crime rates could negatively affect our sales and customer traffic, increase our security expenses, and result in higher turnover of personnel or damage to the perception of our brands. The principal driver of organized criminal activity is the drug trade that aims to supply and profit from the uninterrupted demand for drugs and the supply of weapons from the United States. This situation could worsen and adversely impact our business and financial results because consumer habits and patterns adjust to the increased perceived and real security risks, as people refrain from going out as much and gradually shift some on-premise consumption to off-premise consumption of food and beverages on certain social occasions.

Depreciation of local currencies in other Latin American countries in which we operate may adversely affect our financial position.

The devaluation of the local currencies against the U.S. dollar in our non-Mexican territories can increase our operating costs in these countries, and depreciation of the local currencies against the Mexican peso can negatively affect our results for these countries. In recent years, the value of the currency in the countries in which we operate had been relatively stable except in Venezuela. During 2013, in addition to Venezuela, the currencies of Brazil and Argentina also depreciated against the Mexican peso. Future currency devaluation or the imposition of exchange controls in any of these countries, or in Mexico, would have an adverse effect on our financial position and results.

 

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At the end of January 2014, the exchange rate of the Argentine peso registered a devaluation of approximately 20% with respect to the U.S. dollar. As a result of this devaluation, the balance sheet of our subsidiary could reflect a reduction in shareholders’ equity during 2014. As of December 31, 2013 our foreign direct investment in Argentina, using the exchange rate of 6.38 Argentine pesos per U.S. dollar, was Ps. 945 million.

Depreciation of other local currencies of the countries in which we operate relative to the U.S. dollar may also potentially increase our operating costs. We have operated under exchange controls in Venezuela since 2003, which limit our ability to remit dividends abroad or make payments other than in local currency and that may increase the real price paid for raw materials and services purchased in local currency. We have historically used the official exchange rate (currently 6.30 bolivars to US$1.00) in our Venezuelan operations; however, in January 2014, the Venezuelan government announced that certain transactions, such as payment of services and payments related to foreign investments in Venezuela, must be settled at an alternative exchange rate determined by the state-run system known as the Sistema Complementario de Administración de Divisas , or SICAD. The SICAD determines this alternative exchange rate based on limited periodic sales of U.S. dollars through auctions. The exchange rate based on the most recent SICAD auction, held on April 4, 2014 and in effect as of April 7, 2014, was 10.00 bolivars to U.S.$ 1.00. Imports of our raw materials into Venezuela qualify as transactions that may be settled using the official exchange rate of 6.30 bolivars to U.S.$ 1.00, thus, we will continue to account for these transactions using such official exchange rate. Coca-Cola FEMSA will recognize in the cumulative translation account in its consolidated financial statements as of March 31, 2014 a reduction in equity as a result of the valuation of its net investment in Venezuela at the SICAD exchange rate (10.70 bolivars to U.S.$ 1.00 as of March 31, 2014). As of December 31, 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s foreign direct investment in Venezuela was Ps. 13,788 million (at the official exchange rate of 6.30 bolivars per U.S.$ 1.00). In addition, in March 2014, the Venezuelan government enacted a new law that authorizes an additional method (known as SICAD II) of exchanging Venezuelan bolivars to U.S. dollars at rates other than the current official exchange and the existing SICAD rates for any other type of transaction different than those described above. As of April 4, 2014, the SICAD II exchange rate was 49.04 bolivars to U.S.$ 1.00. Future changes in the Venezuelan exchange control regime, and future currency devaluations or the imposition of exchange controls in any of the countries in which we operate could have an adverse effect on our financial position and results.

 

ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

The Company

Overview

We are a Mexican company headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico, and our origin dates back to 1890. Our company was incorporated on May 30, 1936 and has a duration of 99 years. The duration can be extended indefinitely by resolution of our shareholders. Our legal name is Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V., and in commercial contexts we frequently refer to ourselves as FEMSA. Our principal executive offices are located at General Anaya No. 601 Pte., Colonia Bella Vista, Monterrey, Nuevo León 64410, Mexico. Our telephone number at this location is (52-81) 8328-6000. Our website is www.femsa.com. We are organized as a sociedad anónima bursátil de capital variable under the laws of Mexico.

We conduct our operations through the following principal holding companies, each of which we refer to as a principal sub-holding company:

 

   

Coca-Cola FEMSA, which engages in the production, distribution and marketing of beverages;

 

   

FEMSA Comercio, which operates small-format stores; and

 

   

CB Equity, which holds our investment in Heineken.

 

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Corporate Background

FEMSA traces its origins to the establishment of Mexico’s first brewery, Cervecería Cuauhtémoc, S.A., which we refer to as Cuauhtémoc, which was founded in 1890 by four Monterrey businessmen: Francisco G. Sada, José A. Muguerza, Isaac Garza and José M. Schneider. Descendants of certain of the founders of Cuauhtémoc are participants of the voting trust that controls the management of our company.

The strategic integration of our company dates back to 1936 when our packaging operations were established to supply crown caps to the brewery. During this period, these operations were part of what was known as the Monterrey Group, which also included interests in banking, steel and other packaging operations.

In 1974, the Monterrey Group was split between two branches of the descendants of the founding families of Cuauhtémoc. The steel and other packaging operations formed the basis for the creation of Corporación Siderúrgica, S.A. (now Alfa, S.A.B. de C.V.), controlled by the Garza Sada family, and the beverage and banking operations were consolidated under the Valores Industriales, S.A. de C.V. (the corporate predecessor of FEMSA) corporate umbrella controlled by the Garza Lagüera family. FEMSA’s shares were first listed on what is now the Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, S.A.B. de C.V. (which we refer to as the Mexican Stock Exchange) on September 19, 1978. Between 1977 and 1981, FEMSA diversified its operations through acquisitions in the soft drinks and mineral water industries, the establishment of the first stores under the trade name OXXO and other investments in the hotel, construction, auto parts, food and fishing industries, which were considered non-core businesses and were subsequently divested.

In the 1990s, we began a series of strategic transactions to strengthen the competitive positions of our operating subsidiaries. These transactions included the sale of a 30% strategic interest in Coca-Cola FEMSA to a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company and a subsequent public offering of Coca-Cola FEMSA shares, both of which occurred in 1993. Coca-Cola FEMSA listed its L shares on the Mexican Stock Exchange, and, in the form of ADS, on the New York Stock Exchange.

In 1998, we completed a reorganization that changed our capital structure by converting our outstanding capital stock at the time of the reorganization into BD Units and B Units, and united the shareholders of FEMSA and the former shareholders of Grupo Industrial Emprex, S.A. de C.V. (which we refer to as Emprex) at the same corporate level through an exchange offer that was consummated on May 11, 1998. As part of the reorganization, FEMSA listed ADSs on the NYSE representing BD Units, and listed the BD Units and its B Units on the Mexican Stock Exchange.

In May 2003, our subsidiary Coca-Cola FEMSA expanded its operations throughout Latin America by acquiring 100% of Panamerican Beverages, Inc., which we refer to as Panamco, then the largest soft drink bottler in Latin America in terms of sales volume in 2002. Through its acquisition of Panamco, Coca-Cola FEMSA began producing and distributing Coca-Cola trademark beverages in additional territories in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, along with bottled water, beer and other beverages in some of these territories. The Coca-Cola Company and its subsidiaries received Series D Shares in exchange for their equity interest in Panamco of approximately 25%.

In April 2008, FEMSA shareholders approved a proposal to amend our bylaws in order to preserve the unit structure for our shares that has been in place since May 1998, and to maintain our existing share structure beyond May 11, 2008. Our bylaws previously provided that on May 11, 2008 our Series D-B Shares would convert into Series B Shares and our Series D-L Shares would convert into Series L Shares with limited voting rights. In addition, our bylaws provided that, on May 11, 2008, our current unit structure would cease to exist and each of our B Units would be unbundled into five Series B Shares, while each BD Unit would unbundle into three Series B Shares and two newly issued Series L Shares. Following the April 22, 2008 shareholder approvals, the automatic conversion of our share and unit structures no longer exist, and, absent shareholder action, our share structure will continue to be comprised of Series B Shares, which must represent not less than 51% of our outstanding capital stock, and Series D-B and Series D-L Shares, which together may represent up to 49% of our outstanding capital stock. Our Unit structure, absent shareholder action, will continue to consist of B Units, which bundle five Series B Shares, and BD Units, which bundle one Series B Share, two Series D-B Shares and two Series D-L Shares. See “Item 9. The Offer and Listing—Description of Securities.”

 

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In January 2010, FEMSA announced that its Board of Directors unanimously approved a definitive agreement under which FEMSA would exchange its FEMSA Cerveza business for a 20% economic interest in Heineken, one of the world’s leading brewers. In April 2010, FEMSA announced the closing of the transaction, after Heineken N.V., Heineken Holding N.V. and FEMSA held their corresponding AGMs and approved the transaction. Under the terms of the agreement, FEMSA received 43,018,320 shares of Heineken Holding N.V. and 43,009,699 shares of Heineken N.V., with an additional 29,172,504 shares of Heineken N.V. (which shares we refer to as the Allotted Shares) delivered pursuant to an allotted share delivery instrument, or the ASDI. Heineken also assumed US$ 2.1 billion of indebtedness, including FEMSA Cerveza’s unfunded pension obligations. The Allotted Shares were delivered to FEMSA in several installments during 2010 and 2011, with the final installment delivered on October 5, 2011. As of December 31, 2013, FEMSA’s interest in Heineken N.V. represented 12.53% of Heineken N.V.’s outstanding capital and 14.94% of Heineken Holding N.V.’s outstanding capital, resulting in our 20% economic interest in the Heineken Group. The principal terms of the Heineken transaction documents are summarized below in “Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts.”

In March 2011, a consortium of investors formed by FEMSA, the Macquarie Mexican Infrastructure Fund and other investors, acquired Energía Alterna Istmeña, S. de R.L. de C.V., which we refer to as EAI, and Energía Eólica Mareña, S.A. de C.V., which we refer to as EEM, from subsidiaries of Preneal, S.A., which we refer to as Preneal. EAI and EEM together constitute the Mareña Renovables Wind Farm, a 396 megawatt late-stage wind energy project in the southeastern region of the State of Oaxaca. The Mareña Renovables Wind Farm is expected to be the largest wind power farm in Latin America. On February 23, 2012, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Mitsubishi Corporation, and Stichting Depositary PGGM Infrastructure Funds, a pension fund managed by PGGM, acquired the 45% interest held by FEMSA in the parent companies of the Mareña Renovables Wind Farm. The sale of FEMSA’s participation as an investor resulted in a gain of Ps. 933 million. Certain subsidiaries of FEMSA, FEMSA Comercio and Coca-Cola FEMSA have entered into 20-year wind power supply agreements with the Mareña Renovables Wind Farm to purchase energy output produced by it. These agreements remain in full force and effect.

In March 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA, with The Coca-Cola Company and through Compañía Panameña de Bebidas, S.A.P.I. de C.V., acquired Grupo Industrias Lacteas, S.A. (which we refer to as Estrella Azul), a Panamanian company engaged for more than 50 years in the dairy and juice-based beverage categories. Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired a 50% interest and continues to develop this business with The Coca-Cola Company. Beginning in April 2011, both The Coca-Cola Company and Coca-Cola FEMSA commenced the gradual integration of Estrella Azul into the existing beverage platform they share for the development of non-carbonated products in Panama.

In October 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA merged with Administradora de Acciones del Noreste, S.A.P.I. de C.V., which constituted the beverage division of Grupo Tampico, S.A. de C.V. (which we refer to as Grupo Tampico). This franchise territory operates in the states of Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí and Veracruz, as well as in certain parts of the states of Hidalgo, Puebla and Querétaro.

In December 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA merged with Corporación de los Ángeles, S.A. de C.V. (which we refer to as Grupo CIMSA), a Mexican family-owned bottler of Coca-Cola trademark products. This franchise territory operates mainly in the states of Morelos and Mexico, as well as in certain parts of the states of Guerrero and Michoacán.

In 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA began the construction of a production plant in Minas Gerais, Brazil, which has required an investment of 520 million Brazilian reais (equivalent to approximately US$ 260 million). It is anticipated that the new plant will be completed in July 2014 and will begin operations during the third quarter of 2014. It is expected that by 2015 the annual production capacity will be approximately 1.2 billion liters of sparkling beverages, representing an increase of approximately 62% as compared to the current installed capacity of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plant in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

In May 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its merger with Grupo Fomento Queretano, S.A.P.I. de C.V. (which we refer to as Grupo Fomento Queretano), with operations mainly in the state of Querétaro, as well as in parts of the states of Mexico, Hidalgo, and Guanajuato.

 

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On September 24, 2012, FEMSA signed definitive agreements to sell its wholly owned subsidiary Industria Mexicana de Quimicos, S.A. de C.V. (which we refer to as Quimiproductos) to a Mexican subsidiary of Ecolab Inc. (NYSE: ECL). Quimiproductos manufactures and provides cleaning and sanitizing products and services related to food and beverage industrial processes, as well as water treatment. The transaction is consistent with FEMSA’s long-standing strategy to divest non-core businesses. Quimiproductos was sold on December 31, 2012, resulting in a gain of Ps. 871 million.

On January 25, 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed the transaction with The Coca-Cola Company to acquire a 51% non-controlling majority stake in CCBPI for US$ 688.5 million (Ps. 8,904 million) in an all-cash transaction. Coca-Cola FEMSA has an option to acquire the remaining 49% stake in CCBPI at any time during the seven years following the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA also has a put option to sell its ownership in CCBPI to The Coca-Cola Company commencing on the fifth anniversary of the closing date and ending on the sixth anniversary of the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently manages the day-to-day operations of the business; however, during a four-year period ending January 25, 2017 the business plan and other operational decisions must be taken jointly with The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently recognizes the results of CCBPI using the equity method.

In May 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its merger with Grupo Yoli, one of the oldest family-owned Coca-Cola bottlers in Mexico, operating mainly in the state of Guerrero as well as in parts of the state of Oaxaca.

On May 2, 2013, FEMSA Comercio through one of its subsidiaries, Cadena Comercial de Farmacias, S.A.P.I. de C.V. ( which we refer to as CCF), closed the acquisition of Farmacias YZA, a leading drugstore operator in Southeast Mexico, headquartered in Merida, Yucatan. The founding shareholders of Farmacias YZA hold a 25% stake in CCF. In a separate transaction, on May 13, 2013, CCF acquired Farmacias FM Moderna, a leading drugstore operator in the western state of Sinaloa.

In August 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its acquisition of Companhia Fluminense de Refrigerantes (which we refer to as Companhia Fluminense), a family owned franchise that operates in parts of the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Companhia Fluminense sold approximately 56.6 million unit cases (including beer) in the twelve months ended March 31, 2013.

In October 2013, the Board of Directors agreed to separate the roles of Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, ratifying José Antonio Fernández Carbajal as Executive Chairman of the Board and naming Carlos Salazar Lomelín as the new Chief Executive Officer of FEMSA.

In October 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its acquisition of Spaipa, the second largest family owned franchise in Brazil, with operations in the state of Paraná and in parts of the state of São Paulo. Spaipa sold approximately 233.3 million unit cases (including beer) in the twelve months ended June 30, 2013.

In December 2013, FEMSA Comercio, through one of its subsidiaries, purchased the operating assets and trademarks of Doña Tota, a leading quick-service restaurant operator in Mexico. The founding shareholders of Doña Tota hold a 20% stake in the FEMSA Comercio subsidiary that now operates the Doña Tota business.

For more information on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s recent transactions, see “ Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA.”

 

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Ownership Structure

We conduct our business through our principal sub-holding companies as shown in the following diagram and table:

Principal Sub-holding Companies—Ownership Structure

As of March 31, 2014

 

LOGO

 

(1) Compañía Internacional de Bebidas, S.A. de C.V., which we refer to as CIBSA.

 

(2) Percentage of issued and outstanding capital stock owned by CIBSA (63.0% of shares with full voting rights).

 

(3) Ownership in CB Equity held through various FEMSA subsidiaries.

 

(4) Combined economic interest in Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V.

The following table presents an overview of our operations by reportable segment and by geographic area:

Operations by Segment—Overview

Year Ended December 31, 2013 and % of growth (decrease) vs. last year (1)

 

     Coca-Cola FEMSA     FEMSA Comercio      CB Equity (2)  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos,
except for employees and percentages)
               

Total revenues

     Ps.156,011         6     Ps. 97,572         13%         —           —     

Gross Profit

     72,935         6     34,586         14%         —           —     

Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes

     289         61     11         148%         4,587         (45%)   

Total assets

     216,665         30     39,617         27%         82,576         4%    

Employees

     84,922         16     102,989         12%         —           —     

 

(1) The sum of the financial data for each of our segments and percentages with respect thereto differ from our consolidated financial information due to intercompany transactions, which are eliminated in consolidation, and certain assets and activities of FEMSA.

 

(2) CB Equity holds our Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. shares.

 

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Total Revenues Summary by Segment (1)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013      2012      2011  

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     Ps.156,011         Ps.147,739         Ps.123,224   

FEMSA Comercio

     97,572         86,433         74,112   

Other

     17,254         15,899         13,360   

Consolidated total revenues

     Ps.258,097         Ps.238,309         Ps.201,540   

 

(1) The sum of the financial data for each of our segments and percentages with respect thereto differ from our consolidated financial information due to intercompany transactions, which are eliminated in consolidation, and certain assets and activities of FEMSA.

Total Revenues Summary by Geographic Area (1)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013      2012      2011  

Mexico and Central America (2)

     Ps.171,726         Ps.155,576         Ps.129,716   

South America (3)

     55,157         56,444         52,149   

Venezuela

     31,601         26,800         20,173   

Consolidated total revenues

     258,097         238,309         201,540   

 

(1) The sum of the financial data for each geographic area differs from our consolidated financial information due to intercompany transactions, which are eliminated in consolidation.

 

(2) Central America includes Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Domestic (Mexico-only) revenues were Ps. 163,351 million, Ps. 148,098 million and Ps. 122,690 million for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

 

(3) South America includes Brazil, Colombia and Argentina. South America revenues include Brazilian revenues of Ps. 31,138 million, Ps. 30,930 million and Ps. 31,405 million; Colombian revenues of Ps. 13,354 million, Ps. 14,597 million and Ps. 12,320 million; and Argentine revenues of Ps. 10,729 million, Ps. 10,270 million and Ps. 8,399 million, for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

Significant Subsidiaries

The following table sets forth our significant subsidiaries as of December 31, 2013:

 

Name of Company                  

   Jurisdiction of
Establishment
   Percentage
Owned
 

CIBSA:

   Mexico      100.0%   

Coca-Cola FEMSA

   Mexico      47.9% (1)  

Emprex:

   Mexico      100.0%   

FEMSA Comercio

   Mexico      100.0%   

CB Equity (2)

   United Kingdom      100.0%   

 

(1) Percentage of capital stock. FEMSA, through CIBSA, owns 63.0% of the shares of Coca-Cola FEMSA with full voting rights.

 

(2) Ownership in CB Equity held through various FEMSA subsidiaries. CB Equity holds our Heineken N.V and Heineken Holding N.V. shares.

 

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Business Strategy

FEMSA is a leading company that participates in the beverage industry through Coca-Cola FEMSA, the largest franchise bottler of Coca-Cola products in the world, and in the beer industry, through its ownership of the second largest equity stake in Heineken, one of the world’s leading brewers with operations in over 70 countries. In the retail industry FEMSA participates through FEMSA Comercio, operating various small-format chain stores, including OXXO, the largest and fastest-growing chain of stores in Latin America. Each of these businesses is supported by our strategic business unit.

We understand the importance of connecting with our end consumers by interpreting their needs, and ultimately delivering the right products to them for the right occasions and the optimal value proposition. We strive to achieve this by developing brand value, expanding our significant distribution capabilities, and improving the efficiency of our operations while aiming to reach our full potential. We continue to improve our information gathering and processing systems in order to better know and understand what our consumers want and need, and we are improving our production and distribution by more efficiently leveraging our asset base.

We believe that the competencies that our businesses have developed can be replicated in other geographic regions. This underlying principle guided our consolidation efforts, which led to our current continental footprint. We have presence in Mexico, Central and South America and the Philippines including some of the most populous metropolitan areas in Latin America—which has provided us with opportunities to create value through both an improved ability to execute our strategies and the use of superior marketing tools. We have also increased our capabilities to operate and succeed in other geographic regions, by developing management to gain an understanding of local consumer needs. Going forward, we intend to use those capabilities to continue our international expansion of both Coca-Cola FEMSA and FEMSA Comercio, expanding both our geographic footprint and our presence in the non-alcoholic beverage industry and small box retail formats, as well as taking advantage of potential opportunities to leverage our skill set and key competencies.

Our objective is to create economic, social and environmental value for our stakeholders—including our employees, our consumers, our shareholders and the enterprises and institutions within our society—now and into the future.

Coca-Cola FEMSA

Overview

Coca-Cola FEMSA is the largest franchise bottler of Coca-Cola trademark beverages in the world. Coca-Cola FEMSA operates in territories in the following countries:

 

   

Mexico – a substantial portion of central Mexico, the southeast and northeast of Mexico (including the Gulf region).

 

   

Central America – Guatemala (Guatemala City and surrounding areas), Nicaragua (nationwide), Costa Rica (nationwide) and Panama (nationwide).

 

   

Colombia – most of the country.

 

   

Venezuela – nationwide.

 

   

Brazil – a major part of the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul and part of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Goiás.

 

   

Argentina – Buenos Aires and surrounding areas.

 

   

Philippines – nationwide (through a joint venture with The Coca-Cola Company).

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s company was organized on October 30, 1991 as a sociedad anónima de capital variable (a variable capital stock corporation) under the laws of Mexico with a duration of 99 years. On December 5, 2006, as required by amendments to the Mexican Securities Market Law, Coca-Cola FEMSA became a sociedad anónima bursátil de capital variable (a listed variable capital stock corporation). Coca-Cola FEMSA’s legal name is Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal executive offices are located at Calle Mario Pani No. 100, Colonia Santa Fe Cuajimalpa, Delegación Cuajimalpa de Morelos, 05348, México, D.F., México. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s telephone number at this location is (52-55) 1519-5000. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s website is www.coca-colafemsa.com .

 

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The following is an overview of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations by consolidated reporting segment in 2013.

Operations by Consolidated Reporting Segment—Overview

Year Ended December 31, 2013

 

     Total Revenues
(millions of
Mexican pesos)
     Percentage of
Total Revenues
     Gross Profit
(millions of
Mexican
pesos)
     Percentage of
Gross Profit
 

Mexico and Central America (1)

     70,679         45.3%         34,941         47.9%   

South America (2) (excluding Venezuela)

     53,774         34.5%         22,374         30.7%   

Venezuela

     31,558         20.2%         15,620         21.4%   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Consolidated

     156,011         100.0%         72,935         100.0%   

 

(1) Includes Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Includes results of Grupo Yoli from June 2013.

 

(2) Includes Colombia, Brazil and Argentina. Includes results of Companhia Fluminense from September 2013 and Spaipa from November 2013.

Corporate History

In 1979, one of our subsidiaries acquired certain sparkling beverage bottlers that are now a part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s company. At that time, the acquired bottlers had 13 Mexican distribution centers operating 701 distribution routes, and their production capacity was 83 million cases. In 1991, we transferred our ownership in the bottlers to FEMSA Refrescos, S.A. de C.V., the corporate predecessor to Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V.

In June 1993, a subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company subscribed for 30% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock in the form of Series D shares for US$ 195 million. In September 1993, we sold Series L shares that represented 19% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock to the public, and Coca-Cola FEMSA listed these shares on the Mexican Stock Exchange and, in the form of ADSs, on the New York Stock Exchange. In a series of transactions between 1994 and 1997, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired territories in Argentina and additional territories in southern Mexico.

In May 2003, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired Panamco and began producing and distributing Coca-Cola trademark beverages in additional territories in the central and gulf regions of Mexico and in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama), Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, along with bottled water, beer and other beverages in some of these territories. As a result of the acquisition, the interest of The Coca-Cola Company in the capital stock of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s company increased from 30.0% to 39.6%.

During August 2004, Coca-Cola FEMSA conducted a rights offering to allow existing holders of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Series L shares and ADSs to acquire newly issued Series L shares in the form of Series L shares and ADSs, respectively, at the same price per share at which we and The Coca-Cola Company subscribed in connection with the Panamco acquisition.

In November 2006, we acquired, through a subsidiary, 148,000,000 of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Series D shares from certain subsidiaries of The Coca-Cola Company representing 9.4% of the total outstanding voting shares and 8.0% of the total outstanding equity of Coca-Cola FEMSA, at a price of US$ 2.888 per share for an aggregate amount of US$ 427.4 million. With this purchase, we increased our ownership to 53.7% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock. Pursuant to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bylaws, the acquired shares were converted from Series D shares to Series A shares.

In November 2007, Administración, S.A.P.I. de C.V., or Administración, a Mexican company owned directly and indirectly by Coca-Cola FEMSA and The Coca-Cola Company, acquired 100% of the shares of capital stock of Jugos del Valle, S.A.P.I. de C.V., or Jugos del Valle. Jugos del Valle sells fruit juice-based beverages and fruit derivatives. The business of Jugos del Valle in the United States was acquired and sold by The Coca-Cola Company. In 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA, The Coca-Cola Company and all Mexican and Brazilian Coca-Cola bottlers entered into a joint business for the Mexican and Brazilian operations, respectively, of Jugos del Valle. Taking into account the participation held by Grupo Yoli, as of April 4, 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA held an interest of 26.2% in the Mexican joint business. In August 2010, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired from The Coca-Cola Company along with other Brazilian Coca-Cola bottlers, Leão Alimentos e Bebidas, Ltda. or Leão Alimentos,, manufacturer and distributor of the Matte Leão tea brand. In January 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian joint business of Jugos del Valle merged with Leão Alimentos. Taking into account Coca-Cola FEMSA’s participation and the participations held by Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa, as of April 4, 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA had a 26.1% indirect interest in Leão Alimentos in Brazil.

 

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In December 2007 and May 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA sold most of its proprietary brands to The Coca-Cola Company. The proprietary brands are now being licensed back to Coca-Cola FEMSA by The Coca-Cola Company pursuant to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements. The December 2007 transaction was valued at US$ 48 million and the May 2008 transaction was valued at US$ 16 million. Revenues from the sale of proprietary brands in which Coca-Cola FEMSA has a significant continuing involvement are deferred and amortized against the related costs of future sales over the estimated sales period.

In May 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA entered into a transaction with The Coca-Cola Company to acquire its wholly owned bottling franchise Refrigerantes Minas Gerais, Ltda., or REMIL, located in the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil, for a purchase price of US$ 364.1 million. Coca-Cola FEMSA began to consolidate REMIL in its financial statements in June 2008.

In July 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired the Agua De Los Angeles bulk water business in the Valley of Mexico (Mexico City and surrounding areas) from Grupo Embotellador CIMSA, S.A. de C.V., at the time one of the Coca-Cola bottling franchises in Mexico, for a purchase price of US$ 18.3 million. The trademarks remain with The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA subsequently merged Agua De Los Angeles into its bulk water business under the Ciel brand.

In February 2009, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired with The Coca-Cola Company the Brisa bottled water business in Colombia from Bavaria, S.A., a subsidiary of SABMiller plc. Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired the production assets and the distribution territory, and The Coca-Cola Company acquired the Brisa brand. Coca-Cola FEMSA and The Coca-Cola Company equally shared in paying the purchase price of US$ 92 million. Following a transition period, in June 2009, Coca-Cola FEMSA started to sell and distribute the Brisa portfolio of products in Colombia.

In May 2009, Coca-Cola FEMSA entered into an agreement to manufacture, distribute and sell the Crystal trademark water products in Brazil jointly with The Coca-Cola Company.

In March 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA together with The Coca-Cola Company, through Compañía Panameña de Bebidas, S.A.P.I. de C.V., acquired Estrella Azul, a Panamanian conglomerate that participates in the dairy and juice-based beverage categories in Panama. Coca-Cola FEMSA continues to develop this business with The Coca-Cola Company.

In October 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its merger with Grupo Tampico, one of the largest family-owned Coca-Cola bottlers calculated by sales volume in Mexico. This franchise territory operates in the states of Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, and Veracruz, as well as in parts of the states of Hidalgo, Puebla and Queretaro. The aggregate enterprise value of this transaction was Ps. 9,300 million and Coca-Cola FEMSA issued a total of 63.5 million new Series L shares in connection with this transaction. Coca-Cola FEMSA began to consolidate Grupo Tampico in its financial statements in October 2011.

In December 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its merger with Grupo CIMSA, and its shareholders, a Mexican family-owned Coca-Cola bottler with operations mainly in the states of Morelos and Mexico, as well as in parts of the states of Guerrero and Michoacán. The aggregate enterprise value of this transaction was Ps. 11,000 million and Coca-Cola FEMSA issued a total of 75.4 million new Series L shares in connection with this transaction. Coca-Cola FEMSA began to consolidate Grupo CIMSA in its financial statements in December 2011. As part of its merger with Grupo CIMSA, Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquired a 13.2% equity interest in Promotora Industrial Azucarera, S.A de C.V., or Piasa.

In May 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its merger with Grupo Fomento Queretano, one of the oldest family-owned beverage players in the Coca-Cola system in Mexico, with operations mainly in the state of Querétaro, as well as in parts of the states of Mexico, Hidalgo and Guanajuato. The aggregate enterprise value of this transaction was Ps. 6,600 million and Coca-Cola FEMSA issued a total of 45.1 million new Series L shares in connection with this transaction. Coca-Cola FEMSA began to consolidate Grupo Fomento Queretano in its financial statements in May 2012. As part of its merger with Grupo Fomento Queretano Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquired an additional 12.9% equity interest in Piasa.

 

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On January 25, 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed the transaction with The Coca-Cola Company to acquire a 51% non-controlling majority stake in CCBPI for US$ 688.5 million (Ps. 8,904 million) in an all-cash transaction. Coca-Cola FEMSA has an option to acquire the remaining 49% stake in CCBPI at any time during the seven years following the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA also has a put option to sell its ownership in CCBPI to The Coca-Cola Company commencing on the fifth anniversary of the closing date and ending on the sixth anniversary of the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently manages the day-to-day operations of the business; however, during a four-year period ending January 25, 2017 the business plan and other operational decisions must be taken jointly with The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently recognizes the results of CCBPI using the equity method.

In May 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its merger with Grupo Yoli, one of the oldest family-owned Coca-Cola bottlers in Mexico, operating mainly in the state of Guerrero as well as in parts of the state of Oaxaca. Grupo Yoli sold approximately 99 million unit cases in 2012. The aggregate enterprise value of this transaction was Ps. 8,806 million and Coca-Cola FEMSA issued a total of 42.4 million new Series L shares in connection with this transaction. As part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s merger with Grupo Yoli, it also acquired an additional 10.1% equity interest in Piasa for a total ownership above 36.3%. Coca-Cola FEMSA began consolidating the results of Grupo Yoli in its financial statements in June 2013.

In August 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its acquisition of Companhia Fluminense, a family owned franchise that operates in parts of the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. Companhia Fluminense sold approximately 56.6 million unit cases (including beer) in the twelve months ended March 31, 2013. The aggregate enterprise value of this transaction was US$ 448 million and was an all-cash transaction. As part of its acquisition of Companhia Fluminense, Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquired an additional 1.20% equity interest in Leão Alimentos. Coca-Cola FEMSA began consolidating the results of Companhia Fluminense in its financial statements in September 2013.

In October 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its acquisition of Spaipa, the second largest family owned franchise in Brazil, with operations in the state of Paraná and in parts of the state of São Paulo. Spaipa sold approximately 233.3 million unit cases (including beer) in the twelve months ended June 30, 2013. The aggregate enterprise value of this transaction was US$ 1,855 million and was an all-cash transaction. As part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s acquisition of Spaipa, it also acquired an additional 5.82% equity interest in Leão Alimentos, for a total ownership of 26.1%, and a 50% stake in Fountain Água Mineral Ltda., a joint venture to develop the water category together with The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA began consolidating the results of Spaipa in its financial statements in November 2013.

Capital Stock

As of April 4, 2014, we indirectly owned Series A shares equal to 47.9% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock (63.0% of the capital stock with full voting rights). As of April 4, 2014, The Coca-Cola Company indirectly owned Series D shares equal to 28.1% of the capital stock of Coca-Cola FEMSA (37.0% of the capital stock with full voting rights). Series L shares with limited voting rights, which trade on the Mexican Stock Exchange and in the form of ADSs on the New York Stock Exchange, constitute the remaining 24.0% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock.

 

LOGO

 

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Business Strategy

Coca-Cola FEMSA operates with a large geographic footprint in Latin America. In January 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA restructured its operations under four new divisions: (1) Mexico and Central America (covering certain territories in Mexico and Guatemala, and all of Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama), (2) South America (covering certain territories in Argentina, most of Colombia and all of Venezuela), (3) Brazil (covering a major part of the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul and part of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Goiás), and (4) Asia (covering all of the Philippines through a joint venture with The Coca Cola Company). Through these divisions, Coca-Cola FEMSA expects to create a more flexible structure to execute its strategies and extend its track record of growth. Through December 31, 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA managed its business under two divisions—Mexico and Central America and South America. With this new business structure, Coca-Cola FEMSA aligned its business strategies more efficiently, ensuring a faster introduction of new products and categories, and a more rapid and effective design and deployment of commercial models.

One of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s goals is to maximize growth and profitability to create value for its shareholders. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s efforts to achieve this goal are based on: (1) transforming its commercial models to focus on its customers’ value potential and using a value-based segmentation approach to capture the industry’s value potential; (2) implementing multi-segmentation strategies in its major markets to target distinct market clusters divided by consumption occasion, competitive intensity and socioeconomic levels; (3) implementing well-planned product, packaging and pricing strategies through different distribution channels; (4) driving product innovation along its different product categories; (5) developing new businesses and distribution channels; and (6) achieving the full operating potential of its commercial models and processes to drive operational efficiencies throughout its company. In furtherance of these efforts, Coca-Cola FEMSA intends to continue to focus on, among other initiatives, the following:

 

   

working with The Coca-Cola Company to develop a business model to continue exploring and participating in new lines of beverages, extending existing product lines and effectively advertising and marketing its products;

 

   

developing and expanding its still beverage portfolio through innovation, strategic acquisitions and by entering into agreements to acquire companies with The Coca-Cola Company;

 

   

expanding its bottled water strategy with The Coca-Cola Company through innovation and selective acquisitions to maximize profitability across its market territories;

 

   

strengthening its selling capabilities and go-to-market strategies, including pre-sale, conventional selling and hybrid routes, in order to get closer to its clients and help them satisfy the beverage needs of consumers;

 

   

implementing selective packaging strategies designed to increase consumer demand for its products and to build a strong returnable base for the Coca-Cola brand;

 

   

replicating its best practices throughout the value chain;

 

   

rationalizing and adapting its organizational and asset structure in order to be in a better position to respond to a changing competitive environment;

 

   

committing to building a multi-cultural collaborative team, from top to bottom; and

 

   

broadening its geographic footprint through organic growth and strategic joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions.

 

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Coca-Cola FEMSA seeks to increase per capita consumption of its products in the territories in which it operates. To that end, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s marketing teams continuously develop sales strategies tailored to the different characteristics of its various territories and distribution channels. Coca-Cola FEMSA continues to develop its product portfolio to better meet market demand and maintain its overall profitability. To stimulate and respond to consumer demand, Coca-Cola FEMSA continues to introduce new categories, products and presentations. See “—Product and Packaging Mix.” In addition, because Coca-Cola FEMSA views its relationship with The Coca-Cola Company as integral to its business, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses market information systems and strategies developed with The Coca-Cola Company to improve its business and marketing strategies. See “—Marketing.”

Coca-Cola FEMSA also continuously seeks to increase productivity in its facilities through infrastructure and process reengineering for improved asset utilization. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital expenditure program includes investments in production and distribution facilities, bottles, cases, coolers and information systems. Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that this program will allow it to maintain its capacity and flexibility to innovate and to respond to consumer demand for its products.

Coca-Cola FEMSA focuses on management quality as a key element of its growth strategy and remains committed to fostering the development of quality management at all levels. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Strategic Talent Management Model is designed to enable it to reach its full potential by developing the capabilities of its employees and executives. This holistic model works to build the skills necessary for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s employees and executives to reach their maximum potential, while contributing to the achievement of its short- and long-term objectives. To support this capability development model, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s board of directors has allocated a portion of its yearly operating budget to fund these management training programs.

Sustainable development is a comprehensive part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategic framework for business operation and growth. Coca-Cola FEMSA bases its efforts in its Corporate Values and Ethics. Coca-Cola FEMSA focuses on three core areas, (i) its people, by encouraging the development of its employees and their families; (ii) its communities, by promoting development in the communities it serves, an attitude of health, self-care, adequate nutrition and physical activity, and evaluating the impact of its value chain; and (iii) the planet, by establishing guidelines that it believe will result in efficient use of natural resources to minimize the impact that its operations might have on the environment and create a broader awareness of caring for the environment.

Equity Method Investment in CCBPI

On January 25, 2013, as part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s efforts to expand its geographic reach, it acquired a 51% non-controlling majority stake in CCBPI. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently manages the day-to-day operations of the business; however, The Coca-Cola Company has certain rights with respect to the operational business plan. As of December 31, 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s investment under the equity method in CCBPI was Ps. 9,398 million. See Notes 10 and 26 to our consolidated financial statements. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product portfolio in the Philippines consists of Coca-Cola trademark beverages and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s total sales volume in 2013 reached 515 million unit cases. The operations of CCBPI are comprised of 20 production plants and serve close to 925,000 customers.

The Philippines has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of Coca-Cola products in the region and presents significant opportunities for further growth. Coca-Cola has been present in the Philippines since the start of the 20th century and since 1912 it has been locally producing Coca-Cola products. The Philippines received the first Coca-Cola bottling and distribution franchise in Asia. Our strategic framework for growth in the Philippines is based on three pillars: portfolio, route to market and supply chain.

 

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Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Territories

The following map shows Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, giving estimates in each case of the population to which it offer products, the number of retailers of its beverages and the per capita consumption of its beverages as of December 31, 2013:

 

LOGO

Per capita consumption data for a territory is determined by dividing total beverage sales volume within the territory (in bottles, cans, and fountain containers) by the estimated population within such territory, and is expressed on the basis of the number of eight-ounce servings of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products consumed annually per capita. In evaluating the development of local volume sales in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories and to determine product potential, Coca-Cola FEMSA and The Coca-Cola Company measure, among other factors, the per capita consumption of all their beverages.

 

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Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Products

Coca-Cola FEMSA produces, markets, sells and distributes Coca-Cola trademark beverages. The Coca-Cola trademark beverages include: sparkling beverages (colas and flavored sparkling beverages), waters and still beverages (including juice drinks, coffee, teas, milk, value-added dairy and isotonic drinks). The following table sets forth Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main brands as of December 31, 2013:

 

Colas:                         

   Mexico  and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Coca-Cola

   ü    ü    ü

Coca-Cola Light

   ü    ü    ü

Coca-Cola Zero

   ü    ü   

Coca-Cola Life

      ü   

Flavored sparkling beverages:

   Mexico  and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Ameyal

   ü      

Canada Dry

   ü      

Chinotto

         ü

Crush

      ü   

Escuis

   ü      

Fanta

   ü    ü   

Fresca

   ü      

Frescolita

   ü       ü

Hit

         ü

Kist

   ü      

Kuat

      ü   

Lift

   ü      

Mundet

   ü      

Quatro

      ü   

Schweppes

   ü    ü    ü

Simba

      ü   

Sprite

   ü    ü   

Victoria

   ü      

Yoli

   ü      

Water:            

   Mexico  and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Alpina

   ü      

Aquarius (3)

      ü   

Bonaqua

      ü   

Brisa

      ü   

Ciel

   ü      

Crystal

      ü   

Dasani

   ü      

Manantial

      ü   

Nevada

         ü

 

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Other Categories:            

   Mexico  and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Cepita (4)

      ü   

Del Prado (5)

   ü      

Estrella Azul (6)

   ü      

FUZE Tea

   ü       ü

Hi-C (7)

   ü    ü   

Leche Santa Clara (8)

   ü      

Jugos del Valle (4)

   ü    ü    ü

Matte Leao (9)

      ü   

Powerade (10)

   ü    ü    ü

Valle Frut (11)

   ü    ü    ü

 

(1) Includes Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

 

(2) Includes Colombia, Brazil and Argentina.

 

(3) Flavored water. In Brazil, also a flavored sparkling beverage.

 

(4) Juice-based beverage.

 

(5) Juice-based beverage in Central America.

 

(6) Milk and value-added dairy and juices.

 

(7) Juice-based beverage. Includes Hi-C Orangeade in Argentina.

 

(8) Milk and value-added dairy.

 

(9) Ready to drink tea.

 

(10) Isotonic drinks.

 

(11) Orangeade. Includes Del Valle Fresh in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia and Venezuela.

Sales Overview

Coca-Cola FEMSA measures total sales volume in terms of unit cases. “Unit case” refers to 192 ounces of finished beverage product (24 eight-ounce servings) and, when applied to soda fountains, refers to the volume of syrup, powders and concentrate that is required to produce 192 ounces of finished beverage product. The following table illustrates Coca-Cola FEMSA’s historical sales volume for each of its consolidated territories.

 

     Sales Volume
Year Ended December 31,
 
     2013 (1)      2012 (2)      2011 (3)  
     (millions of unit cases)  

Mexico and Central America

        

Mexico

     1,798.0         1,720.3         1,366.5   

Central America (4)

     155.6         151.2         144.3   

South America (excluding Venezuela)

        

Colombia

     275.7         255.8         252.1   

Brazil (5)

     525.2         494.2         485.3   

Argentina

     227.1         217.0         210.7   

Venezuela

     222.9         207.7         189.8   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Consolidated Volume

     3,204.6         3,046.2         2,648.7   

 

(1) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Yoli from June 2013, Companhia Fluminense from September 2013 and Spaipa from November 2013.

 

(2) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Fomento Queretano from May 2012.

 

(3) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Tampico from October 2011 and Grupo CIMSA from December 2011.

 

(4) Includes Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

 

(5) Excludes beer sales volume.

Product and Packaging Mix

Out of the more than116 brands and line extensions of beverages that Coca-Cola FEMSA sells and distributes, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most important brand, Coca-Cola , together with its line extensions, Coca-Cola Light , Coca-Cola Zero and Coca-Cola Life , accounted for 60.2% of total sales volume in 2013. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s next largest brands, Ciel (a water brand from Mexico and its line extensions), Fanta (and its line extensions), ValleFrut

 

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(and its line extensions), and Sprite (and its line extensions) accounted for 12.6%, 4.7%, 2.8% and 2.6%, respectively, of total sales volume in 2013. Coca-Cola FEMSA uses the term line extensions to refer to the different flavors in which it offers its brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA produces, markets, sells and distributes Coca-Cola trademark beverages in each of its territories in containers authorized by The Coca-Cola Company, which consist of a variety of returnable and non-returnable presentations in the form of glass bottles, cans and plastic bottles mainly made of polyethylene terephthalate, which we refer to as PET.

Coca-Cola FEMSA uses the term presentation to refer to the packaging unit in which it sells its products. Presentation sizes for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Coca-Cola trademark beverages range from a 6.5-ounce personal size to a 3-liter multiple serving size. For all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products excluding water, Coca-Cola FEMSA considers a multiple serving size as equal to, or larger than, 1.0 liter. In general, personal sizes have a higher price per unit case as compared to multiple serving sizes. Coca-Cola FEMSA offers both returnable and non-returnable presentations, which allow it to offer portfolio alternatives based on convenience and affordability to implement revenue management strategies and to target specific distribution channels and population segments in its territories. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA sells some Coca-Cola trademark beverage syrups in containers designed for soda fountain use, which we refer to as fountain. Coca-Cola FEMSA also sells bottled water products in bulk sizes, which refer to presentations equal to or larger than 5.0 liters, which have a much lower average price per unit case than its other beverage products.

The characteristics of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories are very diverse. Central Mexico and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories in Argentina are densely populated and have a large number of competing beverage brands as compared to the rest of its territories. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories in Brazil are densely populated but have lower per capita consumption of beverage products as compared to Mexico. Portions of southern Mexico, Central America and Colombia are large and mountainous areas with lower population density, lower per capita income and lower per capita consumption of beverages. In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA faces operational disruptions from time to time, which may have an effect on its volumes sold, and consequently, may result in lower per capita consumption.

The following discussion analyzes Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product and packaging mix by consolidated reporting segment. The volume data presented is for the years 2013, 2012 and 2011.

Mexico and Central America. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product portfolio consists of Coca-Cola trademark beverages, including the Jugos del Valle line of juice-based beverages . In 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA launched FUZE tea in the division. Per capita consumption of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverage products in Mexico and Central America was 654.0 and 180.6 eight-ounce servings, respectively, in 2013.

The following table highlights historical sales volume and mix in Mexico and Central America for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013 (1)      2012 (2)      2011 (3)  

Total Sales Volume

  

Total (millions of unit cases)

     1,953.6         1,871.5         1,510.8   

Growth (%)

     4.4         23.9         9.5   
     (in percentages)  

Unit Case Volume Mix by Category

  

Sparkling beverages

     73.1         73.0         74.9   

Water (4)

     21.2         21.4         19.7   

Still beverages

     5.7         5.6         5.4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     100.0         100.0         100.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Yoli from June 2013.

 

(2) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Fomento Queretano from May 2012.

 

(3) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Tampico from October 2011 and Grupo CIMSA from December 2011.

 

(4) Includes bulk water volumes.

 

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In 2013, multiple serving presentations represented 66.2% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Mexico (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli), a 10 basis points decrease compared to 2012; and 56.3% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Central America, a 50 basis points increase compared to 2012. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategy is to foster consumption of single serve presentations while maintaining multiple serving volumes. In 2013, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 35.0% in Mexico (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli), a 160 basis points increase compared to 2012; and 23.2% in Central America, a 160 basis points decrease compared to 2012.

In 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverages volume as a percentage of its total sales volume in its Mexico and Central America division (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli) increased marginally to 73.1% as compared to 2012.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexico and Central America division (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli) reached 1,953.6 million unit cases in 2013, an increase of 4.4% compared to 1,871.5 million unit cases in 2012. The non-comparable effect of the integration of Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli in Mexico contributed 89.3 million unit cases in 2013 of which 72.2% were sparkling beverages, 9.9% was water, 13.4% were bulk water and 4.5% were still beverages. Excluding the integration of these territories, volume decreased 0.4% to 1,864.2 million unit cases. Organically, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio grew 5.1%, mainly driven by the performance of the Ciel brand in Mexico. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage category grew 3.7% mainly due to the performance of the Jugos del Valle portfolio in the division. These increases partially compensated for the flat volumes in sparkling beverages and a 3.5% decline in the bulk water business.

In 2012, multiple serving presentations represented 66.2% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Mexico (including Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano), a 140 basis points decrease compared to 2011; and 56.1% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Central America, a 30 basis points increase compared to 2011. In 2012, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 33.7% in Mexico (including Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano), a 200 basis points increase compared to 2011; and 33.6% in Central America, a 190 basis points increase compared to 2011.

In 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverages volume as a percentage of total sales volume in its Mexico and Central America division (including Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano) decreased from 74.9% in 2011 to 73.0% in 2012, mainly due to the integration, in 2011, of Grupo Tampico and Grupo CIMSA in Mexico, which have a higher mix of bulk water in their portfolios.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexico and Central America division (including Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano) reached 1,871.5 million unit cases in 2012, an increase of 23.9% compared to 1,510.8 million unit cases in 2011. The non-comparable effect of the integration of Grupo Fomento Queretano, Grupo Tampico and Grupo CIMSA in Mexico contributed 322.7 million unit cases in 2012 of which 62.5% were sparkling beverages, 5.1% bottled water, 27.9% bulk water and 4.5% still beverages. Excluding the integration of these territories, volume grew 1.9% to 1,538.8 million unit cases. Organically sparkling beverages sales volume increased 2.5% as compared to 2011. The bottled water category, including bulk water, decreased 2.6%. The still beverage category increased 8.9%.

South America (Excluding Venezuela). Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product portfolio in South America consists mainly of Coca-Cola trademark beverages, including the Jugos del Valle line of juice-based beverages in Colombia and Brazil and the Kaiser beer brands in Brazil, which we sell and distribute.

In 2010, Coca-Cola FEMSA incorporated ready to drink beverages under the Matte Leao brand in Brazil. During 2011, as part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s continuous effort to develop non-carbonated beverages, it launched Cepita in non-returnable PET bottles and Hi-C , an orangeade, both in Argentina. During 2013, as part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s efforts to foster sparkling beverage per capita consumption in Brazil, it reinforced the 2.0-liter returnable plastic bottle for the Coca-Cola brand and introduced two single-serve 0.2 and 0.3 liter presentations. Per capita consumption of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverages in Colombia, Brazil and Argentina was 150.7, 253.0 and 457.3 eight-ounce servings, respectively, in 2013.

 

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The following table highlights historical total sales volume and sales volume mix in South America (excluding Venezuela), not including beer:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013 (1)      2012      2011  

Total Sales Volume

  

Total (millions of unit cases)

     1,028.1         967.0         948.1   

Growth (%)

     6.3         2.0         4.3   
     (in percentages)  

Unit Case Volume Mix by Category

  

Sparkling beverages

     84.1         84.9         85.9   

Water (2)

     10.1         10.0         9.2   

Still beverages

     5.8         5.1         4.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     100.0         100.0         100.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Includes volume from the operations of Companhia Fluminense from September 2013 and Spaipa from November 2013.

 

(2) Includes bulk water volume.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s South America division, excluding Venezuela, increased 6.3% to 1,028.1 million unit cases in 2013 as compared to 2012, as a result of growth in Colombia and Argentina and the integration of Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa in its Brazilian territories. These effects compensated for an organic volume decline in Brazil. Excluding the non-comparable effect of Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa, volumes remained flat as compared with the previous year. On the same basis, the still beverage category grew 14.3%, mainly driven by the Jugos del Valle line of business in Colombia and Brazil and the performance of FUZE tea in the division. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio, including bulk water, increased 3.8% mainly driven by the Bonaqua brand in Argentina and the Brisa brand in Colombia. These increases compensated for a 1.2% decline in the sparkling beverage portfolio.

In 2013, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 37.2% in Colombia, a decrease of 250 basis points as compared to 2012; 22.0% in Argentina, a decrease of 690 basis points and 16.0% in Brazil, excluding the non-comparable effect of Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa, a 170 basis points increase compared to 2012. In 2013, multiple serving presentations represented 66.7%, 85.2% and 72.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Colombia, Argentina and Brazil on an organic basis, respectively.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s South America division, excluding Venezuela, was 967.0 million unit cases in 2012, an increase of 2.0% compared to 948.1 million unit cases in 2011. Growth in sparkling beverages, mainly driven by sales of the Coca-Cola brand in Argentina and the Fanta brand in Brazil and Colombia, accounted for the majority of the growth during the year. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s growth in still beverages was primarily driven by the Jugos del Valle line of products in Brazil and the Cepita juice brand in Argentina. The growth in sales volume of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s water portfolio, including bulk water, was driven mainly by the Crystal brand in Brazil and the Brisa brand in Colombia.

In 2012, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 40.4% in Colombia, remaining flat as compared to 2011; 28.9% in Argentina, an increase of 110 basis points and 14.4% in Brazil, a 150 basis points decrease compared to 2011. In 2012, multiple serving presentations represented 62.9%, 85.2% and 72.5% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Colombia, Argentina and Brazil, respectively.

Coca-Cola FEMSA continues to distribute and sell the Kaiser  beer portfolio in its Brazilian territories through the 20-year term, consistent with the arrangements in place with Cervejarias Kaiser, a subsidiary of the Heineken Group, since 2006, prior to the acquisition of Cervejarias Kaiser by Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Holding, S.A. de C.V., formerly known as FEMSA Cerveza. Beginning in the second quarter of 2005, Coca-Cola FEMSA ceased including beer that it distributes in Brazil in its reported sales volumes.

Venezuela. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product portfolio in Venezuela consists of Coca-Cola trademark beverages. Per capita consumption of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverages in Venezuela during 2013 was 184.8 eight-ounce servings. At the end of 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA launched Del Valle Fresh , an orangeade, in Venezuela, which contributed significantly to incremental volume growth in this country during 2012. During 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA launched two new presentations for its sparkling beverage portfolio: a 0.355-liter non-returnable PET presentation and a 1-liter non-returnable PET presentation.

 

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The following table highlights historical total sales volume and sales volume mix in Venezuela:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013      2012      2011  

Total Sales Volume

  

Total (millions of unit cases)

     222.9         207.7         189.8   

Growth (%)

     7.3         9.4         (10.0
     (in percentages)  

Unit Case Volume Mix by Category

  

Sparkling beverages

     85.6         87.9         91.7   

Water (1)

     6.9         5.6         5.4   

Still beverages

     7.5         6.5         2.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     100.0         100.0         100.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(1) Includes bulk water volume.

Coca-Cola FEMSA has implemented a product portfolio rationalization strategy that allows it to minimize the impact of certain operating disruptions that have been recurrent in Venezuela over the last several years related to difficulties in accessing raw materials due to the delay in obtaining the corresponding import authorizations. In addition, from time to time, Coca-Cola FEMSA experiences operating disruptions due to prolonged negotiations of collective bargaining agreements. Despite these difficulties, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverage volume increased 7.3% in 2013 as compared to 2012.

Total sales volume increased 7.3% to 222.9 million unit cases in 2013, as compared to 207.7 million unit cases in 2012. The sales volume in the sparkling beverage category grew 4.5%, driven by the strong performance of the Coca-Cola brand, which grew 10.0%. The bottled water business, including bulk water, grew 33.2% mainly driven by the Nevada brand. The still beverage category increased 23.5%, due to the performance of the Del Valle Fresh orangeade and Kapo .

In 2013, multiple serving presentations represented 80.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a 100 basis points increase compared to 2012. In 2013, returnable presentations represented 6.8% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a an 80 basis points decrease compared to 2012.

In 2012, multiple serving presentations represented 79.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a 140 basis points increase compared to 2011. In 2012, returnable presentations represented 7.5% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a 50 basis points decrease compared to 2011. Total sales volume was 207.7 million unit cases in 2012, an increase of 9.4% compared to 189.8 million unit cases in 2011.

Seasonality

Sales of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products are seasonal, as its sales levels generally increase during the summer months of each country and during the Christmas holiday season. In Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA typically achieves its highest sales during the summer months of April through September as well as during the Christmas holidays in December. In Brazil and Argentina, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s highest sales levels occur during the summer months of October through March and the Christmas holidays in December.

Marketing

Coca-Cola FEMSA, in conjunction with The Coca-Cola Company, has developed a marketing strategy to promote the sale and consumption of its products. Coca-Cola FEMSA relies extensively on advertising, sales promotions and retailer support programs to target the particular preferences of its consumers. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s consolidated marketing expenses in 2013, net of contributions by The Coca-Cola Company, were Ps. 5,391 million. The Coca-Cola Company contributed an additional Ps.4,206 million in 2013, which mainly includes contributions for coolers, bottles and cases. Through the use of advanced information technology, Coca-Cola FEMSA has collected customer and consumer information that allow it to tailor its marketing strategies to target different types of customers located in each of its territories and to meet the specific needs of the various markets it serves.

 

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Retailer Support Programs . Support programs include providing retailers with point-of-sale display materials and consumer sales promotions, such as contests, sweepstakes and the giveaway of product samples.

Coolers . Coolers play an integral role in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s clients’ plans for success. Increasing both cooler coverage and the number of cooler doors among its retailers is important to ensure that Coca-Cola FEMSA’s wide variety of products are properly displayed, while strengthening its merchandising capacity in the traditional sales channel to significantly improve its point-of-sale execution.

Advertising . Coca-Cola FEMSA advertises in all major communications media. Coca-Cola FEMSA focuses its advertising efforts on increasing brand recognition by consumers and improving its customer relations. National advertising campaigns are designed and proposed by The Coca-Cola Company’s local affiliates in the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, with Coca-Cola FEMSA’s input at the local or regional level. Point-of-sale merchandising and advertising efforts are proposed and implemented by Coca-Cola FEMSA, with a focus on increasing its connection with customers and consumers.

Channel Marketing . In order to provide more dynamic and specialized marketing of its products, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategy is to classify its markets and develop targeted efforts for each consumer segment or distribution channel. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal channels are small retailers, “on-premise” consumption such as restaurants and bars, supermarkets and third party distributors. Presence in these channels entails a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the purchasing patterns and preferences of various groups of beverage consumers in each of the different types of locations or distribution channels. In response to this analysis, Coca-Cola FEMSA tailors its product, price, packaging and distribution strategies to meet the particular needs of and exploit the potential of each channel.

Multi-Segmentation . Coca-Cola FEMSA has implemented a multi-segmentation strategy in all of its markets. These strategies consist of the implementation of different product/price/package portfolios by market cluster or group. These clusters are defined based on consumption occasion, competitive intensity and socio-economic levels, rather than solely on the types of distribution channels.

Client Value Management . Coca-Cola FEMSA has been transforming its commercial models to focus on its customers’ value potential using a value-based segmentation approach to capture the industry’s potential. Coca-Cola FEMSA started the rollout of this new model in its Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Brazil operations in 2009. As of the end of 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA has covered the totality of the volumes in every operation except for Venezuela and the recently integrated franchises of Grupo Yoli in Mexico and Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa in Brazil.

Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that the implementation of these strategies described above also enables it to respond to competitive initiatives with channel-specific responses as opposed to market-wide responses. In addition, it allows Coca-Cola FEMSA to be more efficient in the way it goes to market and invests its marketing resources in those segments that could provide a higher return. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s marketing, segmentation and distribution activities are facilitated by its management information systems. Coca-Cola FEMSA has invested significantly in creating these systems, including in hand-held computers to support the gathering of product, consumer and delivery information for most of the sales routes throughout its territories.

Product Sales and Distribution

The following table provides an overview of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s distribution centers and the retailers to which it sell its products:

Product Distribution Summary

as of December 31, 2013

 

     Mexico and Central America (1)      South  America (2)      Venezuela  

Distribution centers

     176         70         34   

Retailers (3)

     993,522         769,955         183,879   

 

(1) Includes Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

 

(2) Includes Colombia, Brazil and Argentina.

 

(3) Estimated.

 

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Coca-Cola FEMSA continuously evaluates its distribution model in order to fit with the local dynamics of the marketplace and analyze the way it goes to market, recognizing different service needs from its customers, while looking for a more efficient distribution model. As part of this strategy, Coca-Cola FEMSA is rolling out a variety of new distribution models throughout its territories looking for improvements in its distribution network.

Coca-Cola FEMSA uses several sales and distribution models depending on market, geographic conditions and the customer’s profile: (1) the pre-sale system, which separates the sales and delivery functions, permitting trucks to be loaded with the mix of products that retailers have previously ordered, thereby increasing both sales and distribution efficiency, (2) the conventional truck route system, in which the person in charge of the delivery makes immediate sales from inventory available on the truck, (3) a hybrid distribution system, where the same truck carries product available for immediate sale and product previously ordered through the pre-sale system, (4) the telemarketing system, which could be combined with pre-sales visits and (5) sales through third-party wholesalers of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products.

As part of the pre-sale system, sales personnel also provide merchandising services during retailer visits, which Coca-Cola FEMSA believes enhance the shopper experience at the point of sale. Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that an adequate number of service visits to retailers and frequency of deliveries are essential elements in an effective selling and distribution system for its products.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s distribution centers range from large warehousing facilities and re-loading centers to small deposit centers. In addition to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s fleet of trucks, Coca-Cola FEMSA distributes its products in certain locations through electric carts and hand-trucks in order to comply with local environmental and traffic regulations. In some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, it retains third parties to transport its finished products from the bottling plants to the distribution centers.

Mexico . Coca-Cola FEMSA contracts with one of our subsidiaries for the transportation of finished products to its distribution centers from its production facilities. From the distribution centers, Coca-Cola FEMSA then distributes its finished products to retailers through its own fleet of trucks.

In Mexico, Coca-Cola FEMSA sells a majority of its beverages at small retail stores to consumers who may take the beverages for consumption at home or elsewhere. Coca-Cola FEMSA also sells products through the “on-premise” consumption segment, supermarkets and other locations. The “on-premise” consumption segment consists of sales through sidewalk stands, restaurants, bars and various types of dispensing machines as well as sales through point-of-sale programs in stadiums, concert halls, auditoriums and theaters.

Brazil . In Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA sold 31.9% of its total sales volume through supermarkets in 2013. Also in Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA distributes its finished products to retailers through a combination of its own fleet of trucks and third party distributors, while Coca-Cola FEMSA maintains control over the selling function. In designated zones in Brazil, third-party distributors purchase Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products at a discount from the wholesale price and resell the products to retailers.

Territories other than Mexico and Brazil . Coca-Cola FEMSA distributes its finished products to retailers through a combination of its own fleet of trucks and third party distributors. In most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, an important part of its total sales volume is sold through small retailers, with low supermarket penetration.

Competition

Although Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that its products enjoy wider recognition and greater consumer loyalty than those of its principal competitors, the markets in the territories in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates are highly competitive. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitors are local Pepsi bottlers and other bottlers and distributors of national and regional beverage brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA faces increased competition in many of its territories from B brands. A number of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s competitors in Central America, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina offer beer in addition to sparkling beverages, still beverages, and water, which may enable them to achieve distribution efficiencies.

 

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Price discounting and packaging have joined consumer sales promotions, customer service and non-price retailer incentives as the primary means of competition among bottlers. Coca-Cola FEMSA competes by seeking to offer products at an attractive price in the different segments in its markets and by building on the value of its brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that the introduction of new products and new presentations has been a significant competitive technique that allows it to increase demand for its products, provide different options to consumers and increase new consumption opportunities. See “—Sales Overview.”

Mexico and Central America . Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitors in Mexico are bottlers of Pepsi products, whose territories overlap but are not co-extensive with its own. Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with Organización Cultiba, S.A.B. de C.V., a joint venture formed by Grupo Embotelladoras Unidas, S.A.B. de C.V., the former Pepsi bottler in central and southeast Mexico, a subsidiary of PepsiCo, and Empresas Polar, S.A., the leading beer distributor and Pepsi bottler in Venezuela. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competition in the juice category in Mexico is Grupo Jumex. In the water category, Bonafont , a water brand owned by Grupo Danone, is Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competition. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with Cadbury Schweppes in sparkling beverages and with other national and regional brands in its Mexican territories, as well as “B brand” producers, such as Ajemex, S.A. de C.V. and Consorcio AGA, S.A. de C.V., that offer various presentations of sparkling and still beverages.

In the countries that comprise Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Central America region, its main competitors are Pepsi and Big Cola bottlers. In Guatemala and Nicaragua, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with a joint venture between AmBev and The Central American Bottler Corporation. In Costa Rica, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitor is Florida Bebidas S.A., subsidiary of Florida Ice and Farm Co. In Panama, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competitor is Cervecería Nacional, S.A. Coca-Cola FEMSA also faces competition from “B brands” offering multiple serving size presentations in some Central American countries.

South America (excluding Venezuela) . Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitor in Colombia is Postobón, a well-established local bottler that sells flavored sparkling beverages (under the brands Postobón and Colombiana ), some of which have a wide consumption preference, such as manzana Postobón (apple Postobón), which is the second most popular flavor in the Colombian sparkling beverage industry in terms of total sales volume. Postobón also sells Pepsi products. Postobón is a vertically integrated producer, the owners of which hold other significant commercial interests in Colombia. Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes with low-price producers, such as the producers of Big Cola , which principally offer multiple serving size presentations in the sparkling and still beverage industry.

In Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes against AmBev, a Brazilian company with a portfolio of brands that includes Pepsi , local brands with flavors such as guaraná, and proprietary beer brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes against “B brands” or “Tubainas,” which are small, local producers of low-cost flavored sparkling beverages in multiple serving presentations that represent a significant portion of the sparkling beverage market.

In Argentina, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competitor is Buenos Aires Embotellador S.A., or BAESA, a Pepsi bottler, which is owned by Argentina’s principal brewery, Quilmes Industrial S.A., and indirectly controlled by AmBev. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with a number of competitors offering generic, low-priced sparkling beverages as well as many other generic products and private label proprietary supermarket brands.

Venezuela . In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competitor is Pepsi-Cola Venezuela, C.A., a joint venture formed between PepsiCo and Empresas Polar, S.A., the leading beer distributor in the country. Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes with the producers of Big Cola in part of this country.

Raw Materials

Pursuant to its bottler agreements, Coca-Cola FEMSA is authorized to manufacture, sell and distribute Coca-Cola trademark beverages within specific geographic areas, and Coca-Cola FEMSA is required to purchase in all of its territories for all Coca-Cola trademark beverages concentrate from companies designated by The Coca-Cola Company and sweeteners from companies authorized by The Coca-Cola Company. Concentrate prices for sparkling beverages are determined as a percentage of the weighted average retail price in local currency net of applicable taxes. Although The Coca-Cola Company has the right to unilaterally set the price of concentrates, in practice this percentage has historically been set pursuant to periodic negotiations with The Coca-Cola Company.

 

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In the past, The Coca-Cola Company has increased concentrate prices for sparkling beverages in some of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Most recently, The Coca-Cola Company informed Coca-Cola FEMSA that it will gradually increase concentrate prices for sparkling beverages over a five-year period in Panama and Costa Rica beginning in 2014. Based on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s estimates, it does not expect this increase to have a material effect on its results. The Coca-Cola Company may unilaterally increase concentrate prices again in the future and Coca-Cola FEMSA may not be successful in negotiating or implementing measures to mitigate the negative effect this may have in the prices of its products or its results. See “Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts—Material Contracts Relating to Coca-Cola FEMSA—Cooperation Framework with The Coca-Cola Company.”

In addition to concentrate, Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases sweeteners, carbon dioxide, resin and preforms to make plastic bottles, finished plastic and glass bottles, cans, caps and fountain containers, as well as other packaging materials and raw materials. Sweeteners are combined with water to produce basic syrup, which is added to the concentrate as the sweetener for most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverages. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements provide that, with respect to Coca-Cola trademark beverages, these materials may be purchased only from suppliers approved by The Coca-Cola Company, including certain of our affiliates. Prices for packaging materials and HFCS historically have been determined with reference to the U.S. dollar, although the local currency equivalent in a particular country is subject to price volatility in accordance with changes in exchange rates. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most significant packaging raw material costs arise from the purchase of resin, plastic preforms to make plastic bottles and finished plastic bottles, which Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains from international and local producers. The prices of these materials are related to crude oil prices and global resin supply. In recent years Coca-Cola FEMSA has experienced volatility in the prices we pay for these materials. Across its territories, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s average price for resin in U.S. dollars remained flat in 2013 as compared to 2012.

Under Coca-Cola FEMSA’s agreements with The Coca-Cola Company, it may use raw or refined sugar or HFCS as sweeteners in its products. Sugar prices in all of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, other than Brazil, are subject to local regulations and other barriers to market entry that cause Coca-Cola FEMSA to pay in excess of international market prices for sugar in certain countries. In recent years, international sugar prices experienced significant volatility. Across Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, its average price for sugar in U.S. dollars decreased approximately 15% in 2013 as compared to 2012.

Coca-Cola FEMSA categorizes water as a raw material in its business. Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water for the production of some of its natural spring water products, such as Manantial and Crystal , from spring water pursuant to concessions granted. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Water Supply.”

None of the materials or supplies that Coca-Cola FEMSA uses is presently in short supply, although the supply of specific materials could be adversely affected by strikes, weather conditions, governmental controls, national emergency situations, water shortages or the failure to maintain its existing water concessions.

Mexico and Central America . In Mexico, Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases its returnable plastic bottles from Graham Packaging México, S.A. de C.V., known as Graham, which is the exclusive supplier of returnable plastic bottles to The Coca-Cola Company and its bottlers in Mexico. Coca-Cola FEMSA mainly purchases resin from Indorama Ventures Polymers México, S. de R.L. de C.V. (formerly Arteva Specialties, S. de R.L. de C.V.), M. & G. Polímeros México, S.A. de C.V. and DAK Resinas Americas Mexico, S.A. de C.V., which ALPLA México, S.A. de C.V., known as ALPLA, and Envases Universales de México, S.A.P.I. de C.V. manufacture into non-returnable plastic bottles for Coca-Cola FEMSA.

Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases all of its cans from Fábricas de Monterrey, S.A. de C.V., known as FAMOSA, and Envases Universales de México, S.A.P.I. de C.V., through Promotora Mexicana de Embotelladoras, S.A. de C.V., known as PROMESA, a company owned by various Coca-Cola bottlers, in which, as of April 4, 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA held a 35.0% equity interest. Coca-Cola FEMSA mainly purchases its glass bottles from EXCO Integral Services, S.A. de C.V. (formerly Compañía Vidriera, S.A. de C.V., or VITRO), FEVISA Industrial, S.A. de C.V., known as FEVISA, and Glass & Silice, S.A. de C.V.

Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases sugar from, among other suppliers, Piasa and Beta San Miguel, S.A. de C.V., both sugar cane producers in which, as of April 4, 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA held a 36.3% and 2.7% equity interest, respectively. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases HFCS from CP Ingredientes, S.A. de C.V. and Almidones Mexicanos, S.A. de C.V., known as Almex.

 

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Sugar prices in Mexico are subject to local regulations and other barriers to market entry that cause Coca-Cola FEMSA to pay higher prices than those paid in the international market for sugar. As a result, sugar prices in Mexico have no correlation to international market prices for sugar. In 2013, sugar prices in Mexico decreased approximately 17% as compared to 2012.

In Central America, the majority of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s raw materials such as glass and plastic bottles are purchased from several local suppliers. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases all of its cans from PROMESA. Sugar is available from suppliers that represent several local producers. Local sugar prices, in the countries that comprise the region, have increased mainly due to volatility in international prices. In Costa Rica, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires plastic non-returnable bottles from ALPLA C.R. S.A., and in Nicaragua Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires such plastic bottles from ALPLA Nicaragua, S.A.

South America (excluding Venezuela) . In Colombia, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses sugar as a sweetener in most of its products, which it buy from several domestic sources. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases plastic bottles from Amcor and Tapón Corona de Colombia S.A. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases all its glass bottles from Peldar O-I and cans from Crown, both suppliers in which Grupo Ardila Lulle, owners of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s competitor Postobón, own a minority equity interest. Glass bottles and cans are available only from these local sources; however, Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently exploring alternative sources.

Sugar is available in Brazil at local market prices, which historically have been similar to international prices. Sugar prices in Brazil in recent periods have been volatile, mainly due to the increased demand for sugar cane for production of alternative fuels, and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s average acquisition cost for sugar in 2013 decreased approximately 5.0% as compared to 2012. See “Item 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk—Commodity Price Risk.” Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases glass bottles, plastic bottles and cans from several domestic and international suppliers.

In Argentina, Coca-Cola FEMSA mainly uses HFCS that it purchase from several different local suppliers as a sweetener in its products. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases glass bottles, plastic cases and other raw materials from several domestic sources. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases plastic preforms, as well as returnable plastic bottles, at competitive prices from Embotelladora del Atlántico S.A., a local subsidiary of Embotelladora Andina S.A., a Coca-Cola bottler with operations in Argentina, Chile and Brazil, and other local suppliers. Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquires plastic preforms from ALPLA Avellaneda S.A. and other suppliers.

Venezuela . In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses sugar as a sweetener in most of its products, which it purchase mainly from the local market. Since 2003, from time to time, Coca-Cola FEMSA has experienced a sugar shortage due to lower domestic production and the inability of the predominant sugar importers to obtain permission to import in a timely manner. While sugar distribution to the food and beverages industry and to retailers is controlled by the government, Coca-Cola FEMSA did not experience any disruptions during 2013 with respect to access to sufficient sugar supply. However, we cannot assure you that Coca-Cola FEMSA will not experience disruptions in its ability to meet its sugar requirements in the future should the Venezuelan government impose restrictive measures. Coca-Cola FEMSA buys glass bottles from one local supplier, Productos de Vidrio, S.A., but there are alternative suppliers authorized by The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires most of its plastic non-returnable bottles from ALPLA de Venezuela, S.A. and most of its aluminum cans from a local producer, Dominguez Continental, C.A.

Under current regulations promulgated by the Venezuelan authorities, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s ability and that of its suppliers to import some of the raw materials and other supplies used in its production could be limited, and access to the official exchange rate for these items, including, among others, concentrate, resin, aluminum, plastic caps, distribution trucks and vehicles is only achieved by obtaining proper approvals from the relevant authorities.

FEMSA Comercio

Overview and Background

FEMSA Comercio operates the largest chain of small-format stores in Mexico, measured in terms of number of stores as of December 31, 2013, mainly under the trade name OXXO. As of December 31, 2013, FEMSA Comercio operated 11,721 OXXO stores, of which 11,683 are located throughout the country, with a particularly strong presence in the northern part of Mexico, and the remaining 38 stores are located in Bogotá, Colombia.

 

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FEMSA Comercio was established by FEMSA in 1978 when two OXXO stores were opened in Monterrey, one store in Mexico City and another store in Guadalajara. The motivating factor behind FEMSA’s entrance into the retail industry was to enhance beer sales through company-owned retail outlets as well as to gather information on customer preferences. In 2013, a typical OXXO store carried 3,091 different store keeping units (SKUs) in 31 main product categories.

In recent years, FEMSA Comercio has represented an effective distribution channel for our beverage products, as well as a rapidly growing point of contact with our consumers. Based on the belief that location plays a major role in the long-term success of a retail operation such as a small-format store, as well as a role in our continually improving ability to accelerate and streamline the new-store development process, FEMSA Comercio has focused on a strategy of rapid, profitable growth. FEMSA Comercio opened 1,135, 1,040 and 1,120 net new OXXO stores in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. The accelerated expansion in the number of OXXO stores yielded total revenue growth of 12.9% to reach Ps. 97,572 million in 2013. OXXO same store sales increased an average of 2.4%, driven by an increased average customer ticket net of a decrease in store traffic. FEMSA Comercio performed approximately 3.2 billion transactions in 2013 compared to 3.0 billion transactions in 2012.

Business Strategy

A fundamental element of FEMSA Comercio’s business strategy is to utilize its position in the small-format store market to grow in a cost-effective and profitable manner. As a market leader in small-format store retailing, based on internal company surveys, management believes that FEMSA Comercio has an in-depth understanding of its markets and significant expertise in operating a national store chain. FEMSA Comercio intends to continue increasing its store base while capitalizing on the market knowledge gained at existing stores.

FEMSA Comercio has developed proprietary models to assist in identifying appropriate store locations, store formats and product categories. Its model utilizes location-specific demographic data and FEMSA Comercio’s experience in similar locations to fine tune the store format and product offerings to the target market. Market segmentation is becoming an important strategic tool, and it should increasingly allow FEMSA Comercio to improve the operating efficiency of each location and the overall profitability of the chain.

FEMSA Comercio has made and will continue to make significant investments in IT to improve its ability to capture customer information from its existing OXXO stores and to improve its overall operating performance. The majority of products carried through OXXO stores are bar-coded, and all OXXO stores are equipped with point-of-sale systems that are integrated into a company-wide computer network. To implement revenue management strategies, FEMSA Comercio created a division in charge of product category management for products, such as beverages, fast food and perishables, to enhance and better utilize its consumer information base and market intelligence capabilities. FEMSA Comercio utilizes a technology platform supported by an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, as well as other technological solutions such as merchandising and point-of-sale systems, which will allow FEMSA Comercio to continue redesigning its key operating processes and enhance the usefulness of its market information going forward. In addition, FEMSA Comercio has expanded its operations by opening 4 new OXXO stores in Bogotá, Colombia in 2013.

FEMSA Comercio has adopted innovative promotional strategies in order to increase store traffic and sales. In particular, FEMSA Comercio sells high-frequency items such as beverages, snacks and cigarettes at competitive prices. FEMSA Comercio’s ability to implement this strategy profitably is partly attributable to the size of the OXXO chain, as FEMSA Comercio is able to work together with its suppliers to implement their revenue-management strategies through differentiated promotions. OXXO’s national and local marketing and promotional strategies are an effective revenue driver and a means of reaching new segments of the population while strengthening the OXXO brand. For example, the organization has refined its expertise in executing cross promotions (discounts on multi-packs or sales of complementary products at a special price) and targeted promotions to attract new customer segments, such as housewives, by expanding the offerings in the grocery product category in certain stores. FEMSA Comercio is also strengthening its capabilities to increasingly provide consumers with services such as utility bill payment and other basic transactions.

 

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Store Locations

With 11,683 OXXO stores in Mexico and 38 OXXO stores in Colombia as of December 31, 2013, FEMSA Comercio operates the largest small-format store chain in Latin America measured by number of stores. OXXO stores are concentrated in the northern part of Mexico, but also have a growing presence in the rest of the country.

FEMSA Comercio

Regional Allocation of OXXO Stores in Mexico and Latin America (*)

as of December 31, 2013

 

LOGO

FEMSA Comercio has aggressively expanded its number of OXXO stores over the past several years. The average investment required to open a new OXXO store varies, depending on location and format and whether the store is opened in an existing retail location or requires construction of a new store. FEMSA Comercio is generally able to use supplier credit to fund the initial inventory of new OXXO stores.

Growth in Total OXXO Stores

 

     Year Ended December 31,
     2013   2012   2011   2010   2009

Total OXXO stores

       11,721         10,601         9,561         8,426         7,334  

Store growth (% change over previous year)

       10.6 %       10.9 %       13.5 %       14.9 %       15.1 %

FEMSA Comercio currently expects to continue the growth trend established over the past several years by emphasizing growth in areas of high economic potential in existing markets and by expanding in underserved and unexploited markets. Management believes that the southeast part of Mexico is particularly underserved by the small-format store industry.

 

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The identification of locations and pre-opening planning in order to optimize the results of new stores are important elements in FEMSA Comercio’s growth plan. FEMSA Comercio continuously reviews store performance against certain operating and financial benchmarks to optimize the overall performance of the chain. Stores unable to maintain benchmark standards are generally closed. Between December 31, 2009 and 2013, the total number of OXXO stores increased by 4,387, which resulted from the opening of 4,507 new stores and the closing of 120 existing stores.

Competition

FEMSA Comercio, mainly through OXXO, competes in the overall retail market, which we believe is highly competitive. OXXO stores face competition from small-format stores like 7-Eleven, Super Extra, Super City, Círculo K stores and other numerous chains of retailers across Mexico, from other regional small-format retailers to small informal neighborhood stores. OXXO competes both for consumers and for new locations for stores and the managers to operate those stores. FEMSA Comercio operates in the 32 Mexican states and has much broader geographical coverage than any of its competitors in Mexico.

Market and Store Characteristics

Market Characteristics

FEMSA Comercio is placing increased emphasis on market segmentation and differentiation of store formats to more appropriately serve the needs of customers on a location-by-location basis. The principal segments include residential neighborhoods, commercial and office locations and stores near schools and universities, along with other types of specialized locations.

Approximately 66% of OXXO’s customers are between the ages of 15 and 35. FEMSA Comercio also segments the market according to demographic criteria, including income level.

OXXO Store Characteristics

The average size of an OXXO store is approximately 104 square meters of selling space, excluding space dedicated to refrigeration, storage or parking. The average constructed area of a store is approximately 187 square meters and, when parking areas are included, the average store size is approximately 424 square meters.

FEMSA Comercio—Operating Indicators

 

     Year Ended December 31,
     2013   2012   2011   2010   2009
    

(percentage increase compared to

previous year)

Total FEMSA Comercio revenues

       12.9 %       16.6 %       19.0 %       16.3 %       13.6 %

OXXO same-store sales (1)

       2.4 %       7.7 %       9.2 %       5.2 %       1.3 %

 

(1) Same-store sales growth is calculated by comparing the sales of stores for each year that have been in operation for more than 12 months with the sales of those same stores during the previous year.

Beer, cigarettes, soft drinks and other beverages and snacks represent the main product categories for OXXO stores. FEMSA Comercio has a distribution agreement with Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (which is now part of the Heineken Group). As a result of this agreement, OXXO stores only carry beer brands produced and distributed by Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma. OXXO stores will continue to benefit from the existing relationship under which Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma will continue to be the exclusive supplier of beer to OXXO until June 2020.

Approximately 61% of OXXO stores are operated by independent managers responsible for all aspects of store operations. The managers are commission agents and are not employees of FEMSA Comercio. Each store manager is the legal employer of the store’s staff, which typically numbers six people per store. FEMSA Comercio continually invests in on-site operating personnel, with the objective of promoting loyalty, customer service and low personnel turnover in the stores.

 

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Advertising and Promotion

FEMSA Comercio’s marketing efforts include both specific product promotions and image advertising campaigns. These strategies seek to increase store traffic and sales, and to reinforce the OXXO name and market position.

FEMSA Comercio manages its advertising on three levels depending on the nature and scope of the specific campaign: local or store-specific, regional and national. Store-specific and regional campaigns are closely monitored to ensure consistency with the overall corporate image of OXXO stores and to avoid conflicts with national campaigns. FEMSA Comercio primarily uses point of purchase materials, flyers, handbills and print and radio media for promotional campaigns, although television is used occasionally for the introduction of new products and services. The OXXO chain’s image and brand name are presented consistently across all stores, irrespective of location.

Inventory and Purchasing

FEMSA Comercio has placed considerable emphasis on improving operating performance. As part of these efforts, FEMSA Comercio continues to invest in extensive information management systems to improve inventory management. Electronic data collection has enabled FEMSA Comercio to reduce average inventory levels. Inventory replenishment decisions are carried out on a store-by-store basis.

Management believes that the OXXO chain’s scale of operations provides FEMSA Comercio with a competitive advantage in its ability to realize strategic alliances with suppliers. General category offerings are determined on a national level, although purchasing decisions are implemented on a local, regional or national level, depending on the nature of the product category. Given the fragmented nature of the retail industry in Mexico in general, Mexican producers of beer, soft drinks, bread, dairy products, snacks, cigarettes and other high-frequency products have established proprietary distribution systems with extensive direct distribution routes. As a result, approximately 58% of the OXXO chain’s total sales consist of products that are delivered directly to the stores by suppliers. Other products with longer shelf lives are distributed to stores by FEMSA Comercio’s distribution system, which includes 16 regional warehouses located in Monterrey, Guadalajara, Mexicali, Mérida, León, Obregón, Puebla, Queretaro, Chihuahua, Reynosa, Saltillo, Tijuana, Toluca, Villahermosa and two in Mexico City. The distribution centers operate a fleet of approximately 783 trucks that make deliveries to each store approximately twice per week.

Seasonality

OXXO stores experience periods of high demand in December, as a result of the holidays, and in July and August, as a result of increased consumption of beer and soft drinks during the hot summer months. The months of November and February are generally the weakest sales months for OXXO stores. In general, colder weather during these months reduces store traffic and consumption of cold beverages.

Entry into Drugstore Market

During 2013, FEMSA Comercio entered the drugstore market in Mexico through two transactions. FEMSA Comercio through CCF, closed the acquisition of Farmacias YZA, a leading drugstore operator in Southeast Mexico, headquartered in Merida, Yucatan. The founding shareholders of Farmacias YZA hold a 25% stake in CCF. Following this transaction, on May 13, 2013, CCF acquired Farmacias Moderna, a leading drugstore operator in the western state of Sinaloa.

The rationale for entering this new market is anchored on our belief that FEMSA Comercio has developed certain capabilities and skills that should be applicable and useful in the operation of other small retail formats. These capabilities include site selection, logistics, business processes, human resources, inventory and supplier management. The drugstore market in Mexico is very fragmented and FEMSA Comercio believes it is well equipped to create value by entering this market and pursuing a growth strategy that maximizes the opportunity.

 

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Entry into Quick Service Restaurant Market

Following the same rationale that its capabilities and skills are well suited to different types of small-format retail, during 2013 FEMSA Comercio also entered the quick service restaurant market in Mexico through the 80% acquisition of Doña Tota. This is a leading regional chain specializing in Mexican food with a particularly strong presence in the northeast of the country. This acquisition presents FEMSA Comercio with the opportunity to grow Doña Tota’s stand-alone store base across the country, while also offering the benefit of advancing FEMSA Comercio’s prepared food capabilities and expertise.

Other Stores

FEMSA Comercio also operates other small-format stores, which include soft discount stores with a focus on perishables and liquor stores.

Equity Method Investment in the Heineken Group

As of December 31, 2013, FEMSA owned a non-controlling interest in the Heineken Group, one of the world’s leading brewers. As of December 31, 2013, our 20% economic interest in the Heineken Group was comprised of 43,018,320 shares of Heineken Holding N.V. and 72,182,203 shares of Heineken N.V. For 2013, FEMSA recognized equity income of Ps. 4,587 million regarding its 20% economic interest in the Heineken Group; see note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

As described above, FEMSA Comercio has a distribution agreement with Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (which is now a part of the Heineken Group) pursuant to which OXXO stores only carry beer brands produced and distributed by Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma. OXXO stores will continue to benefit from the existing relationship under which Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma will continue to be the exclusive supplier of beer to OXXO until June 2020. As of April 30, 2010, Coca-Cola FEMSA has agreed with Cervejarias Kaiser (also now part of the Heineken Group) to continue to distribute and sell the Kaiser beer portfolio in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian territories for a 20-year term beginning in 2003, consistent with the arrangement already in place. In addition, our logistic services, corporate and shared services subsidiary continues to provide certain services to Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma and its subsidiaries.

Other Business

Our other business consists of the following smaller operations that support our core operations:

 

   

Our logistics services subsidiary provides a broad range of logistics and vehicle maintenance services to Coca-Cola FEMSA, FEMSA Comercio and third-party clients in the beverages, consumer products and retail industries. It has operations in Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

 

   

Our refrigeration business produces vertical and horizontal commercial refrigerators for the soft drink, beer and food industries, with an annual capacity of 510,840 units at December 31, 2013. In 2013, this business sold 412,202 refrigeration units, 35.4% of which were sold to Coca-Cola FEMSA, and the remainder of which were sold to third parties.

 

   

Our corporate services subsidiary employs all of our corporate staff, including the personnel managing the areas of finance, corporate accounting, taxation, legal, financial and strategic planning, human resources, corporate affairs and internal audit. Through this subsidiary, we direct, control, supervise and review the operations of our sub-holding companies. As of December 31, 2013, FEMSA Comercio and our other business subsidiaries pay management fees for the services provided to them. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA has entered into a services agreement pursuant to which it pays for specific services. As part of the Heineken transaction, the corporate and shared services subsidiaries continue to provide some limited corporate services and shared services to subsidiaries of Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma (now part of the Heineken Group), for which such companies continue to pay.

 

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Description of Property, Plant and Equipment

As of December 31, 2013, we owned all of our manufacturing facilities and substantially all of our warehouses and distribution centers. Our properties primarily consisted of production and distribution facilities for our soft drink operations and office space. In addition, FEMSA Comercio owns approximately 11.8% of the OXXO store locations, while the other stores are located in properties that are rented under long-term lease arrangements with third parties.

The table below summarizes by country the installed capacity and percentage utilization of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production facilities:

Bottling Facility Summary

As of December 31, 2013

 

Country        

   Installed  Capacity
(thousands of unit cases)
     Utilization (1)
(%)
 

Mexico

     2,857,805         61%   

Guatemala

     36,770         77%   

Nicaragua

     68,961         59%   

Costa Rica

     78,740         57%   

Panama

     54,755         57%   

Colombia

     542,058         50%   

Venezuela

     249,373         88%   

Brazil

     794,214         61%   

Argentina

     364,612         61%   

 

(1) Annualized rate.

The table below summarizes by country the location and facility area of each of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production facilities.

Bottling Facilities by Location as of December 31, 2013

 

Country        

  

Location

   Production Area
         

(thousands

of sq. meters)

Mexico

   San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas    45
   Cuautitlán, Estado de México    35
   Los Reyes la Paz, Estado de México    50
   Toluca, Estado de México    242
   León, Guanajuato    124
   Morelia, Michoacán    50
   Ixtacomitán, Tabasco    117
   Apizaco, Tlaxcala    80
   Coatepec, Veracruz    142
   La Pureza Altamira, Tamaulipas    300
   Poza Rica, Veracruz    42
   Pacífico, Estado de México    89
   Cuernavaca, Morelos    37
   Toluca, Estado de México (Ojuelos)    41
   San Juan del Río, Querétaro    84
   Querétaro, Querétaro    80
   Iguala, Guerrero    8
   Cayaco, Acapulco    104

 

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Country        

  

Location

   Production Area
         

(thousands

of sq. meters)

Guatemala

   Guatemala City    46

Nicaragua

   Managua    54

Costa Rica

   Calle Blancos, San José    52
   Coronado, San José    14

Panama

   Panama City    29

Colombia

   Barranquilla    37
   Bogotá, DC    105
   Bucaramanga    26
   Cali    76
   Manantial, Cundenamarca    67
   Medellín    47

Venezuela

   Antímano    15
   Barcelona    141
   Maracaibo    68
   Valencia    100

Brazil

   Campo Grande    36
   Jundiaí    191
   Mogi das Cruzes    119
   Belo Horizonte    73
   Porto Real    108
   Maringá    160
   Marilia    159
   Curitiba    65
   Baurú    111

Argentina

   Alcorta, Buenos Aires    73
   Monte Grande, Buenos Aires    32

Insurance

We maintain an “all risk” insurance policy covering our properties (owned and leased), machinery and equipment and inventories as well as losses due to business interruptions. The policy covers damages caused by natural disaster, including hurricane, hail, earthquake and damages caused by human acts, including explosion, fire, vandalism and riot. We also maintain a freight transport insurance policy that covers damages to goods in transit. In addition, we maintain a liability insurance policy that covers product liability. We purchase our insurance coverage through an insurance broker. In 2013, the policies for “all risk” property insurance and freight transport insurance were issued by ACE Seguros, S.A. and the policy for liability insurance was issued by XL Insurance Mexico, S.A. de C.V. Our “all risk” coverage was partially reinsured in the international reinsurance market. We believe that our coverage is consistent with the coverage maintained by similar companies.

 

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Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

Our consolidated capital expenditures, net of disposals, for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011 were Ps. 17,882 million, Ps. 15,560 million and Ps. 12,666 million respectively, and were for the most part financed from cash from operations generated by our subsidiaries. These amounts were invested in the following manner:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013      2012      2011  
     (In millions of Mexican pesos)  

Coca-Cola FEMSA

   Ps. 11,703       Ps.  10,259       Ps. 7,862   

FEMSA Comercio

     5,683         4,707         4,186   

Other

     496         594         618   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   Ps.  17,882       Ps. 15,560       Ps.  12,666   

Coca-Cola FEMSA

In 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA focused its capital expenditures on investments in (1) increasing production capacity, (2) placing coolers with retailers, (3) returnable bottles and cases, (4) improving the efficiency of its distribution infrastructure and (5) information technology. Through these measures, Coca-Cola FEMSA strives to improve its profit margins and overall profitability.

FEMSA Comercio

FEMSA Comercio’s principal investment activity is the construction and opening of new stores. During 2013, FEMSA Comercio opened 1,120 net new OXXO stores. FEMSA Comercio invested Ps. 5,651 million in 2013 in the addition of new stores, warehouses and improvements to leased properties.

Regulatory Matters

Competition Legislation

The Ley Federal de Competencia Económica (Federal Economic Competition Law or Mexican Competition Law) became effective on June 22, 1993. The Mexican Competition Law and the Reglamento de la Ley Federal de Competencia Económica (Regulations under the Mexican Competition Law), effective as of October 13, 2007, regulate monopolistic practices and require Mexican government approval of certain mergers and acquisitions. The Mexican Competition Law subjects the activities of certain Mexican companies, including us, to regulatory scrutiny. In addition, the Regulations under the Mexican Competition Law prohibit members of any trade association from reaching any agreement relating to the price of their products. Management believes that we are currently in compliance in all material respects with Mexican competition legislation.

In Mexico and in some of the other countries in which we operate, we are involved in different ongoing competition related proceedings. We believe that the outcome of these proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results. See “Item 8. Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Coca-Cola FEMSA.”

Price Controls

Voluntary price restraints or statutory price controls have been imposed historically in several of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Currently, there are no price controls on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in any of its territories, except for Argentina, where authorities directly supervise two products sold through supermarkets as a measure to control inflation, and Venezuela, where the government has recently imposed price controls on certain products including bottled water. In addition, in January 2014, the Venezuelan government

 

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passed the Ley Orgánica de Precios Justos (Fair Prices Law). This law substitutes both the Ley para la Defensa y Acceso a las Personas a los Bienes y Servicios (Access to Goods and Services Defense Law) and the Ley de Costos y Precios Justos (Fair Costs and Prices Law), which have both been repealed. The purpose of this new law is to establish regulations and administrative processes to impose a limit on profits earned on the sale of goods, including Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, seeking to maintain price stability of, and equal access to, goods and services. The law also creates the National Office of Costs and Prices which main role is to oversee price controls and set maximum retail prices on certain consumer goods and services. Although Coca-Cola FEMSA believes it is in compliance with this law, consumer protection and price control laws in Venezuela are subject to continuing review and changes, and any such changes may have an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA. See “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors— Regulatory developments may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business .”

Mexican Tax Reform

In December of 2013, the Mexican government enacted a package of tax reforms (the “2014 Tax Reform”) which includes several significant changes to tax laws, discussed in further detail below, that entered into effect on January 1, 2014. The most significant changes are as follows:

 

   

The introduction of a new withholding tax at the rate of 10% for dividends and/or distributions of earnings generated in 2014 and beyond;

 

   

The elimination of the exemption on gains from the sale of shares through a stock exchange recognized under applicable Mexican tax law. The gain will be taxable at the rate of 10% and will be withheld by the financial intermediary. Transferors that are residents of a country with which Mexico has entered into a tax treaty for the avoidance of double taxation will be exempt. See “Item 10. Additional Information—Taxation—Mexican Taxation.”

 

   

A fee of one Mexican peso per liter on the sale and import of flavored beverages with added sugar, and an excise tax of 8% on food with caloric content equal to, or greater than 275 kilocalories per 100 grams of product;

 

   

The prior 11% value added tax (VAT) rate that applied to transaction in the border region was raised to 16%, matching the general VAT rate applicable in the rest of Mexico;

 

   

The elimination of the tax on cash deposits (IDE) and the business flat tax (IETU);

 

   

Deductions on exempt payroll items for workers are limited to 53%;

 

   

The income tax rate in 2013 and 2012 was 30%. Scheduled decreases to the income tax rate that would have reduced the rate to 29% in 2014 and 28% in 2015 and thereafter, were canceled in connection with the 2014 Tax Reform;

 

   

The repeal of the existing tax consolidation regime, which is effective as of January 1, 2014, modified the payment term of a tax on assets payable of Ps. 180, which will be paid over the following 5 years instead of an indefinite term. Additionally, deferred tax assets and liabilities associated with our subsidiaries in Mexico are no longer offset as of December 31, 2013, as the future income tax balances are expected to reverse in periods where we are no longer consolidating these entities for tax purposes and the right of offset does not exist; and

 

   

The introduction of an new optional tax integration regime (a modified form of tax consolidation), which replaces the previous tax consolidation regime. The new optional tax integration regime requires an equity ownership of at least 80% for qualifying subsidiaries and would allow us to defer the annual tax payment of our profitable participating subsidiaries for a period equivalent to 3 years to the extent their individual tax expense exceeds the integrated tax expense of the Company.

 

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Taxation of Beverages

Beverages are subject to a value added tax in all the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates except for Panama, with a rate of 16% in Mexico, 12% in Guatemala, 15% in Nicaragua, 13% in Costa Rica, 16% in Colombia (applied only to the first sale in the supply chain), 12% in Venezuela, 21% in Argentina, and in Brazil 17% in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás and 18% in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro. In Brazil the value-added tax is grossed-up and added, along with federal sales tax, at the taxable basis. Also, in Brazil Coca-Cola FEMSA is responsible for charging and collecting the value-added tax from each of its retailers, based on average retail prices for each state where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, defined primarily through a survey conducted by the government of each state and generally updated every six months, which in 2013 represented an average taxation of approximately 15.3% over net sales.

In addition, several of the countries in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates impose the following excise or other taxes:

 

   

The state of Rio de Janeiro charges an additional 1% as a contribution to a poverty eradication fund.

 

   

Mexico imposes an excise tax of Ps. 1.00 per liter on the production, sale and importation of beverages with added sugar as of January 1, 2014. This tax is applied only to the first sale and Coca-Cola FEMSA is responsible for charging and collecting this excise tax.

 

   

Guatemala imposes an excise tax of 0.18 cents in local currency (Ps. 0.3002 as of December 31, 2013) per liter of sparkling beverage.

 

   

Costa Rica imposes a specific tax on non-alcoholic bottled beverages based on the combination of packaging and flavor, currently assessed at 17.32 colones (Ps. 0.4460 as of December 31, 2013) per 250 ml, and an excise tax currently assessed at 6.02 colones (approximately Ps. 0.1553 as of December 31, 2013) per 250 ml.

 

   

Nicaragua imposes a 9.0% tax on consumption, and municipalities impose a 1% tax on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Nicaraguan gross income.

 

   

Panama imposes a 5.0% tax based on the cost of goods produced and a 10% selective consumption tax on syrups, powders and concentrate.

 

   

Argentina imposes an excise tax of 8.7% on sparkling beverages containing less than 5.0% lemon juice or less than 10.0% fruit juice, and an excise tax of 4.2% on sparkling water and flavored sparkling beverages with 10.0% or more fruit juice, although this excise tax is not applicable to some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products.

 

   

Brazil assesses an average production tax of approximately 9.1% and an average sales tax of approximately 13.5% over net sales. These taxes are fixed by the federal government based on national average retail prices obtained through surveys conducted on a yearly basis. The national average retail price of each product and presentation is multiplied by a fixed rate combined with specific multipliers for each presentation, to obtain a fixed tax per liter, per product and presentation. These taxes are applied only to the first sale and Coca-Cola FEMSA is responsible for charging and collecting these taxes from each of its retailers.

 

   

Colombia’s municipalities impose a sales tax that varies between 0.35% and 1.2% of net sales.

 

   

Venezuela’s municipalities impose a variable excise tax applied only to the first sale that varies between 0.6% and 2.5% of net sales.

 

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Environmental Matters

In all of our territories, our operations are subject to federal and state laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment.

Mexico

The Mexican federal authority in charge of overseeing compliance with the federal environmental laws is the Secretaria del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales or Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources, which we refer to as “SEMARNAT”. An agency of SEMARNAT, the Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente or Federal Environmental Protection Agency, which we refer to as “PROFEPA”, has the authority to enforce the Mexican federal environmental laws. As part of its enforcement powers, PROFEPA can bring administrative, civil and criminal proceedings against companies and individuals that violate environmental laws, regulations and Mexican Official Standards and has the authority to impose a variety of sanctions. These sanctions may include, among other things, monetary fines, revocation of authorizations, concessions, licenses, permits or registrations, administrative arrests, seizure of contaminating equipment, and in certain cases, temporary or permanent closure of facilities. Additionally, as part of its inspection authority, PROFEPA is entitled to periodically inspect the facilities of companies whose activities are regulated by the Mexican environmental legislation and verify compliance therewith. Furthermore, in special situations or certain areas where federal jurisdiction is not applicable or appropriate, the state and municipal authorities can administer and enforce certain environmental regulations of their respective jurisdictions.

In Mexico, the principal legislation relating to environmental matters is the Ley General de Equilibrio Ecológico y Protección al Ambiente (Federal General Law for Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection, or the Mexican Environmental Law) and the Ley General para la Prevención y Gestión Integral de los Residuos (General Law for the Prevention and Integral Management of Waste). Under the Mexican Environmental Law, rules have been promulgated concerning water, air and noise pollution and hazardous substances. In particular, Mexican environmental laws and regulations require that we file periodic reports with respect to air and water emissions and hazardous wastes and set forth standards for waste water discharge that apply to our operations. We are also subject to certain minimal restrictions on the operation of delivery trucks in Mexico City. We have implemented several programs designed to facilitate compliance with air, waste, noise and energy standards established by current Mexican federal and state environmental laws, including a program that installs catalytic converters and liquid petroleum gas in delivery trucks for our operations in Mexico City.

In addition, we are subject to the Ley de Aguas Nacionales de 1992 (as amended, the 1992 Water Law), enforced by the Comisión Nacional del Agua (National Water Commission). Adopted in December 1992, and amended in 2004, the 1992 Water Law provides that plants located in Mexico that use deep water wells to supply their water requirements must pay a fee to the local governments for the discharge of residual waste water to drainage. Pursuant to this law, certain local authorities test the quality of the waste water discharge and charge plants an additional fee for measurements that exceed certain standards published by the National Water Commission. In the case of non-compliance with the law, penalties, including closures, may be imposed. All of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler plants located in Mexico have met these standards. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants in Apizaco and San Cristóbal are certified with ISO 14001.

In Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexican operations, it established a partnership with The Coca-Cola Company and ALPLA, a supplier of plastic bottles to Coca-Cola FEMSA in Mexico, to create Industria Mexicana de Reciclaje (IMER), a PET recycling facility located in Toluca, Mexico. This facility started operations in 2005 and has a recycling capacity of approximately 25,000 metric tons per year from which 15,000 metric tons can be re-used in PET bottles for food packaging purposes. Coca-Cola FEMSA has also continued contributing funds to a nationwide recycling company, Ecología y Compromiso Empresarial (Environmentally Committed Companies). In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants located in Toluca, Reyes, Cuautitlán, Apizaco, San Cristóbal, Morelia, Ixtacomitan, Coatepec, Poza Rica, Ojuelos, Pacífico and Cuernavaca have received or are in the process of receiving a Certificado de Industria Limpia (Certificate of Clean Industry).

 

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As part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s environmental protection and sustainability strategies, in December 2009, Coca-Cola FEMSA, jointly with strategic partners, entered into a wind energy supply agreement with a Mexican subsidiary of the Spanish wind farm developer, GAMESA Energía, S.A., or GAMESA, to supply clean energy to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottling facility in Toluca, Mexico, owned by its subsidiary, Propimex, S. de R.L. de C.V. (formerly Propimex, S.A. de C.V.), or Propimex, and to some of its suppliers of PET bottles. In 2010, GAMESA sold its interest in the Mexican subsidiary that owned the wind farm to Iberdrola Renovables México, S.A. de C.V. The wind farm generating such energy, which is located in La Ventosa, Oaxaca, is expected to generate approximately 100 thousand megawatt hours of energy annually. The energy supply services began in April 2010. During 2012 and 2013, this wind farm provided Coca-Cola FEMSA with approximately 88 thousand and 81 thousand megawatt hours, respectively.

Additionally, several of our subsidiaries have entered into 20-year wind power purchase agreements with the Mareña Renovables Wind Farm to receive electrical energy for use at production and distribution facilities of FEMSA and Coca-Cola FEMSA throughout Mexico, as well as for a significant number of OXXO stores. The Mareña Renovables Wind Farm will be located in the state of Oaxaca and is expected to have a capacity of 396 megawatts. We anticipate the Mareña Renovables Wind Farm will begin operations in 2015.

Central America

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Central American operations are subject to several federal and state laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, which have been enacted in the last ten years, as awareness has increased in this region about the protection of the environment and the disposal of hazardous and toxic materials as well as water usage. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Costa Rica and Panama operations have participated in a joint effort along with the local division of The Coca-Cola Company called Misión Planeta (Mission Planet) for the collection and recycling of non-returnable plastic bottles.

Colombia

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Colombian operations are subject to several Colombian federal, state and municipal laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment and the disposal of treated water and toxic and hazardous materials. These laws include the control of atmospheric emissions, noise emissions, disposal of treated water and strict limitations on the use of chlorofluorocarbons. For Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants in Colombia, it has obtained the Certificación Ambiental Fase IV (Phase IV Environmental Certificate) demonstrating its compliance at the highest level with relevant Colombian regulations. Coca-Cola FEMSA is also engaged in nationwide reforestation programs, and national campaigns for the collection and recycling of glass and plastic bottles. In 2011, jointly with the FEMSA Foundation, Coca-Cola FEMSA was commended with the “Western Hemisphere Corporate Citizenship Award” for the social responsibility programs it carried out to respond to the extreme weather experienced in Colombia in 2010 and 2011, known locally as the “winter emergency.” In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA also obtained the ISO 9001, ISO 22000, ISO 14001 and PAS 220 certifications for its plants located in Medellín, Cali, Bogotá, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga and La Calera, as recognition for the highest quality and food harmlessness in its production processes. These six plants joined a small group of companies that have obtained these certifications.

Venezuela

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations are subject to several Venezuelan federal, state and municipal laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment. The most relevant of these laws are the Ley Orgánica del Ambiente (Organic Environmental Law), the Ley Sobre Sustancias, Materiales y Desechos Peligrosos (Substance, Material and Dangerous Waste Law), the Ley Penal del Ambiente (Criminal Environmental Law) and the Ley de Aguas (Water Law). Since the enactment of the Organic Environmental Law in 1995, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan subsidiary has presented the proper authorities with plans to bring their production facilities and distribution centers into compliance with applicable laws, which mainly consist of building or expanding the capacity of water treatment plants in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottling facilities. Even though Coca-Cola FEMSA has had to adjust some of the originally proposed timelines due to construction delays, in 2009, Coca-Cola FEMSA completed the construction and received all the required permits to operate a new water treatment plant in its bottling facility located in the city of Barcelona. At the end of 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA concluded the construction of a new water treatment plant in its bottling plant in the city of Valencia, which began operations in February 2012. During 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA also commenced construction of a new water treatment plant in its Antimano bottling plant in Caracas, which construction was concluded during the second quarter of 2012. Coca-Cola FEMSA is also concluding the construction and expansion of its current water treatment plant in its bottling facility in Maracaibo, which it expects will commence operations during the first half of 2014. In December 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtained the ISO 14000 certification for all of its plants in Venezuela.

 

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In addition, in December 2010, the Venezuelan government approved the Ley Integral de Gestión de la Basura (Comprehensive Waste Management Law), which regulates solid waste management and which may be applicable to manufacturers of products for mass consumption. The full scope of this law has not yet been established.

Brazil

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian operations are subject to several federal, state and municipal laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment. Among the most relevant laws and regulations are those dealing with the emission of toxic and hazardous gases, disposal of wastewater and solid waste, and soil contamination by hazardous chemicals, which impose penalties, such as fines, facility closures or criminal charges depending upon the level of non-compliance.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production plant located in Jundiaí has been recognized by the Brazilian authorities for its compliance with environmental regulations and for having standards well above those imposed by the law. The plant has been certified for: (i) ISO 9001 since 1993; (ii) ISO 14001 since March 1997; (iii) norm OHSAS 18001 since 2005; (iv) ISO 22000 since 2007; and (v) PAS: 220 since 2010. In 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production plants in Jundiaí, Campo Grande, Bauru, Marília, Curitiba, Maringá, Porto Real and Mogi das Cruzes were certified in standard FSSC22000.

In Brazil, a municipal regulation of the City of São Paulo, implemented pursuant to Law 13.316/2002, came into effect in May 2008. This regulation requires Coca-Cola FEMSA to collect for recycling a specified annual percentage of plastic bottles made from PET sold in the City of São Paulo; such percentage increases each year. Beginning in May 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA was required to collect 90% of the PET bottles sold in the city of São Paulo for recycling. Currently, Coca-Cola FEMSA is not able to collect the entire required volume of PET bottles it has sold in the City of São Paulo for recycling. Since Coca-Cola FEMSA does not meet the requirements of this regulation, which we believe to be more onerous than those imposed by the countries with the highest recycling standards, it could be fined and be subject to other sanctions, such as the suspension of operations in any of its plants and/or distribution centers located in the City of São Paulo. In May 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA, together with other bottlers in the city of São Paulo, through the Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Refrigerantes e de Bebidas Não-alcoólicas (Brazilian Soft Drink and Non-Alcoholic Beverage Association, or ABIR), filed a motion requesting a court to overturn this regulation due to the impossibility of compliance. In addition, in November 2009, in response to a municipal authority request for Coca-Cola FEMSA to demonstrate the destination of the PET bottles sold by it in the City of São Paulo, Coca-Cola FEMSA filed a motion showing all of its recycling programs and requesting a more practical timeline to comply with the requirements of the law. In October 2010, the municipal authority of the City of São Paulo levied a fine on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian operating subsidiary of 250,000 Brazilian reais (approximately Ps. 1.3 million as of December 31, 2013) on the grounds that the report submitted by Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian operating subsidiary did not comply with the 75% proper disposal requirement for the period from May 2008 to May 2010. Coca-Cola FEMSA filed an appeal against this fine, which was denied by the municipal authority in May 2013, and the administrative stage is therefore closed. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently evaluating next steps. In July 2012, the State Appellate Court of São Paulo rendered a decision admitting the interlocutory appeal filed on behalf of ABIR in order to suspend the fines and other sanctions to ABIR’s associated companies, including Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian subsidiary, for alleged noncompliance with the municipal regulation pending the final resolution of the lawsuit. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently awaiting final resolution of the lawsuit filed on behalf of ABIR.

In August 2010, Law No. 12.305/2010 established the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy. This policy is based on the principle of shared responsibility between the government, companies and the public, and provides for the post-consumption return of products to companies and requires public authorities to implement waste management programs. This law is regulated by Federal Decree No. 7.404/2010, and was published in December 2010. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently discussing with the relevant authorities the impact this law may have on Brazilian companies in complying with the regulation in effect in the City of São Paulo. In response to the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy, in December 2012, a proposal was provided to the Ministry of the Environment by

 

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almost 30 associations involved in the packaging sector, including ABIR in its capacity as representative for The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian subsidiary, and other bottlers. The proposal involved creating a “coalition” to implement systems for reverse logistics packaging non-dangerous waste that makes up the dry portion of municipal solid waste or its equivalent. The goal of the proposal is to create methodologies for sustainable development, and protect the environment, society, and the economy. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently awaiting a final resolution from the Ministry of Environment, which it expects to receive during 2014.

Argentina

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Argentine operations are subject to federal and municipal laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. The most significant of these are regulations concerning waste water discharge, which are enforced by the Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable (Ministry of Natural Resources and Sustainable Development) and the Organismo Provincial para el Desarrollo Sostenible (Provincial Organization for Sustainable Development) for the province of Buenos Aires. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Alcorta plant is in compliance with environmental standards and Coca-Cola FEMSA has been certified for ISO 14001:2004 for its plants and operative units in Buenos Aires.

For all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plant operations, it employs an environmental management system: Sistema de Administración Ambiental (Environmental Administration System, or EKOSYSTEM) that is contained within Sistema Integral de Calidad (Integral Quality System, or SICKOF).

Coca-Cola FEMSA has expended, and may be required to expend in the future, funds for compliance with and remediation under local environmental laws and regulations. Currently, we do not believe that such costs will have a material adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results or financial condition. However, since environmental laws and regulations and their enforcement are becoming increasingly more stringent in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, and there is increased recognition by local authorities of the need for higher environmental standards in the countries where it operates, changes in current regulations may result in an increase in costs, which may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s future results or financial condition. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s management is not aware of any significant pending regulatory changes that would require a significant amount of additional remedial capital expenditures.

We do not believe that Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business activities pose a material risk to the environment, and we believe that Coca-Cola FEMSA is in material compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations.

Other regulations

In December 2009, the Venezuelan government issued a decree requiring a reduction in energy consumption by at least 20% for industrial companies whose consumption is greater than two megawatts per hour and to submit an energy-usage reduction plan. Some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottling operations in Venezuela outside of Caracas met this threshold and it submitted a plan, which included the purchase of generators for its plants. In January 2010, the Venezuelan government subsequently implemented power cuts and other measures for all industries in Caracas whose consumption was above 35 kilowatts per hour. In 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA installed electrical generators in its Antimano, Valencia and Maracaibo bottling facilities to mitigate any such risks and filed the respective energy usage reduction plans with the authorities. Coca-Cola FEMSA is also currently installing electrical generators in its Barcelona plant.

In January 2012, the Costa Rican government approved a decree that regulates the sale of food and beverages in schools. The decree came into effect in 2012. Enforcement of this law has been gradual since it started in 2012 and until 2014, depending on the specific characteristics of the food or beverage in question. According to the decree, the sale of specific sparkling beverages and still beverages that contain sugar, syrup or HFCS in any type of presentation in schools is prohibited. Coca-Cola FEMSA will still be allowed to sell water and certain still beverages in schools. We cannot assure you that the Costa Rican government will not further restrict sales of other of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in schools in the future; any such further restrictions could lead to an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results.

 

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In May 2012, the Venezuelan government adopted significant changes to labor regulations. This amendment to Venezuela’s labor regulations had a negative impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business and operations. The principal changes that impacted Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations are: (i) the requirement that employee terminations are now subject to governmental authorization; (ii) retroactive assessments for any modifications to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s severance payment system; (iii) a reduction in the maximum daily and weekly working hours (from 44 to 40 weekly); (iv) an increase in mandatory weekly breaks, prohibiting a reduction in salaries as a result of such increase; and (v) the requirement that all third party contractors participating in the manufacturing and sales processes of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products be included in its payroll by no later than May 2015. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently in compliance with these labor regulations and expects to include all third party contractors to its payroll by the imposed deadline.

In September 2012, the Brazilian government issued Law No. 12,619 (Law of Professional Drivers), which regulates the working hours of professional drivers who distribute Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products from its plants to the distribution centers and to retailers and points of sale. Pursuant to this law, employers must keep a record of working hours, including overtime hours, of professional drivers in a reliable manner, such as electronic logbooks or worksheets. This law may result in increased labor costs.

In June 2013, following a comprehensive amendment to the Mexican Constitution, a new antitrust authority with autonomy was created: the Comisión Federal de Competencia Económica (Federal Antitrust Commission, or CFCE). It is expected that Congress will enact legislation to adjust current legislation based on the amended constitutional provisions. As a result of these amendments, new antitrust and telecommunications specialized courts were created and commenced hearing cases in August 2013. We cannot assure you that these new amendments and the creation of new governmental bodies and courts will not have an adverse effect on our business.

In 2013, the government of Argentina imposed a withholding tax at a rate of 10% on dividends paid by Argentine companies to non-Argentine holders. Similarly, in 2013, the government of Costa Rica repealed a tax exemption on dividends paid to Mexican residents. Future dividends will be subject to withholding tax at a rate of 15%.

In January 2014, the new Anti-Corruption Law in Brazil came into effect, which regulates bribery, corruption practices and fraud in connection with agreements entered into with governmental agencies. The main purpose of this law is to impose liability on companies carrying out such practices, establishing fines that can reach up to 20% of a company’s sales volume in the previous fiscal year. Although Coca-Cola FEMSA believes it is in compliance with this law, if it was found liable for any of these practices, this law would have an adverse effect on its business.

In Brazil, the federal taxes applied on the production and sale of beverages are based on the national average retail price, calculated based on a yearly survey of each Brazilian beverage brand, combined with a fixed tax rate and a multiplier specific for each different presentation (glass, plastic or can). Commencing on October 1, 2014 through October 1, 2018, the multiplier used to calculate taxes on soft drinks presented in cans and glasses will gradually increase from 31.9% and 37.2% to 38.0% and 44.4%, respectively, and the multiplier used to calculate taxes on energy and isotonic drinks presented in cans and glasses will gradually increase from 31.9% to 37.5%. The multipliers for other presentations of carbonated soft drinks, energy and isotonic drinks, such as plastic, cups and post mix, will not change.

Water Supply

In Mexico, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water directly from municipal utility companies and pumps water from its own wells pursuant to concessions obtained from the Mexican government on a plant-by-plant basis. Water use in Mexico is regulated primarily by the 1992 Water Law, and regulations issued thereunder, which created the National Water Commission. The National Water Commission is in charge of overseeing the national system of water use. Under the 1992 Water Law, concessions for the use of a specific volume of ground or surface water generally run from five- to fifty-year terms, depending on the supply of groundwater in each region as projected by the National Water Commission. Concessionaires may request that concession terms be extended before they expire. The Mexican government is authorized to reduce the volume of ground or surface water granted for use by a concession by whatever volume of water is not used by the concessionaire for two consecutive years. However, because the current concessions for each of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants in Mexico do not match each plant’s projected needs for water in future years, we successfully negotiated with the Mexican government the right to transfer the unused volume under concessions from certain plants to other plants anticipating greater water usage in the future. These concessions may be terminated if, among other things, we use more water than permitted or we fail to pay required concession-related fees and do not cure such situations in a timely manner.

 

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Although we have not undertaken independent studies to confirm the sufficiency of the existing groundwater supply, we believe that our existing concessions satisfy our current water requirements in Mexico.

In Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA buys water directly from municipal utility companies and we also capture water from underground sources, wells or surface sources (i.e., rivers), pursuant to concessions granted by the Brazilian government for each plant. According to the Brazilian Constitution, water is considered an asset of common use and can only be exploited for the national interest by Brazilians or companies formed under Brazilian law. Concessionaires and users have the responsibility for any damage to the environment. The exploitation and use of water is regulated by the Código de Mineração (Code of Mining, Decree Law No. 227/67), the Código de Águas Minerais (Mineral Water Code, Decree Law No. 7841/45), the National Water Resources Policy (Law No. 9433/97) and by regulations issued thereunder. The companies that exploit water are supervised by the Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineiral—DNPM (National Department of Mineral Production) and the National Water Agency in connection with federal health agencies, as well as state and municipal authorities. In Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Jundiaí, Marília, Curitiba, Maringá, Porto Real and Belo Horizonte plants, it does not exploit spring water. In its Mogi das Cruzes, Bauru and Campo Grande plants, it has all the necessary permits for the exploitation of spring water.

In Argentina, a state water company provides water to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Alcorta plant on a limited basis; however, we believe the authorized amount meets Coca-Cola FEMSA’s requirements for this plant. In Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Monte Grande plant in Argentina, it pumps water from its own wells, in accordance with Law 25.688.

In Colombia, in addition to natural spring water, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water directly from its own wells and from utility companies. Coca-Cola FEMSA is required to have a specific concession to exploit water from natural sources. Water use in Colombia is regulated by Law No. 9 of 1979 and Decrees No. 1594 of 1984 and No. 2811 of 1974. In addition, on February 6, 2012, Colombia promulgated Decree No. 303, which requires Coca-Cola FEMSA to apply for water concessions and for authorization to discharge its water into public waterways. The National Institute of National Resources supervises companies that use water as a raw material for their business.

In Nicaragua, the use of water is regulated by the Ley General de Aguas Nacionales (National Water Law), and Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water directly from its own wells. In Costa Rica, the use of water is regulated by the Ley de Aguas (Water Law). In both of these countries, Coca-Cola FEMSA owns and exploits its own water wells granted to it through governmental concessions. In Guatemala, no license or permits are required to exploit water from the private wells in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s own plants. In Panama, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires water from a state water company, and the use of water is regulated by the Reglamento de Uso de Aguas de Panamá (Panama Use of Water Regulation). In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses private wells in addition to water provided by the municipalities, and it has taken the appropriate actions, including actions to comply with water regulations, to have water supply available from these sources, regulated by the Ley de Aguas (Water Law).

In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water for the production of some of its natural spring water products, such as Manantial and Crystal , from spring water pursuant to concessions granted.

We cannot assure you that water will be available in sufficient quantities to meet our future production needs, that we will be able to maintain our current concessions or that additional regulations relating to water use will not be adopted in the future in our territories. We believe that we are in material compliance with the terms of our existing water concessions and that we are in compliance with all relevant water regulations.

 

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

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ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is entirely qualified by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes to those financial statements. Our consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with IFRS as issued by the IASB.

Overview of Events, Trends and Uncertainties

Management currently considers the following events, trends and uncertainties to be important to understanding its results and financial position during the periods discussed in this section:

 

   

Coca-Cola FEMSA has continued to grow organic volumes at a steady but moderate pace, and is in the process of integrating Grupo Yoli in its Mexican operations and Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa in its Brazilian operations. However, in the short term there is some pressure from macroeconomic uncertainty in certain South American markets, including currency volatility. In Mexico, starting in 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA faces incremental increases in taxation and is adjusting its price and package architecture to address the new tax environment. Volume growth is mainly driven by the Coca-Cola brand across markets, together with the solid performance of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage portfolio.

 

   

FEMSA Comercio has maintained high rates of OXXO store openings and continues to grow in terms of total revenues. FEMSA Comercio has lower operating margins than our beverage business. Given that FEMSA Comercio has lower operating margins and given its fixed cost structure, it is more sensitive to changes in sales which could negatively affect operating margins.

Our results and financial position are affected by the economic and market conditions in the countries where our subsidiaries conduct their operations, particularly in Mexico. Changes in these conditions are influenced by a number of factors, including those discussed in “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors.”

Recent Developments

In October 2013, the Board of Directors agreed to separate the roles of Chairman of the Board and CEO, ratifying José Antonio Fernández Carbajal as Executive Chairman of the Board and naming Carlos Salazar Lomelín as the new Chief Executive Officer of FEMSA. In addition, John Anthony Santa Maria Otazua was named Chief Executive Officer of Coca-Cola FEMSA.

In October 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its acquisition of Spaipa, the second largest family owned franchise in Brazil, with operations in the state of Paraná and in parts of the state of São Paulo. Spaipa sold approximately 233.3 million unit cases (including beer) in the twelve months ended June 30, 2013. The aggregate enterprise value of this transaction was US$ 1,855 (Ps. 26,856) million and it was an all-cash transaction. As part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s acquisition of Spaipa, it also acquired an additional 5.82% equity interest in Leão Alimentos, for a total ownership of 26.1%, and a 50% stake in Fountain Água Mineral Ltda., a joint venture to develop the water category together with The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA began consolidating the results of Spaipa in its financial statements in November 2013.

In December 2013, FEMSA Comercio, through one of its subsidiaries, purchased the operating assets and trademarks of Doña Tota, a leading quick-service restaurant operator in Mexico. The founding shareholders of Doña Tota hold a 20% stake in the FEMSA Comercio subsidiary that now operates the Doña Tota business.

In January 2014, a decree amending and supplementing certain tax provisions became effective in Mexico. See Note 24 to our audited consolidated financial statements, and “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Mexican Tax Reform.”

 

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Effects of Changes in Economic Conditions

Our results are affected by changes in economic conditions in Mexico, Brazil and in the other countries in which we operate. For the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011, 63%, 62%, and 61%, respectively, of our total sales were attributable to Mexico. As a result, we have significant exposure to the economic conditions of certain countries, particularly those in Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina, although we continue to generate a substantial portion of our total sales from Mexico. The participation of these other countries as a percentage of our total sales has not changed significantly during the last five years. Total sales in countries other than Mexico are expected to increase in future periods due to acquisitions.

The Mexican economy is gradually recovering from a downturn as a result of the impact of the global financial crisis on many emerging economies in 2009. According to INEGI, Mexican GDP expanded by 1.1% in 2013 and by approximately 3.9% and 4.0% in 2012 and 2011, respectively. According to the Banco Nacional de México survey regarding the economic expectations of specialists, Mexican GDP is expected to increase by 3.09% in 2014, as of the latest estimate, published on April 3, 2014. The Mexican economy continues to be heavily influenced by the U.S. economy, and therefore, further deterioration in economic conditions in, or delays in the recovery of, the U.S. economy may hinder any recovery in Mexico.

Our results are affected by the economic conditions in the countries where we conduct operations. Most of these economies continue to be heavily influenced by the U.S. economy, and therefore, deterioration in economic conditions in the U.S. economy may affect these economies. Deterioration or prolonged periods of weak economic conditions in the countries where we conduct operations may have, and in the past have had, a negative effect on our company and a material adverse effect on our results and financial condition. Our business may also be significantly affected by the interest rates, inflation rates and exchange rates of the currencies of the countries in which we operate. Decreases in growth rates, periods of negative growth and/or increases in inflation or interest rates may result in lower demand for our products, lower real pricing of our products or a shift to lower margin products. In addition, an increase in interest rates would increase the cost to us of variable rate funding, which would have an adverse effect on our financial position.

Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2011 and through 2013, the exchange rate between the Mexican peso and the U.S. dollar fluctuated from a low of Ps. 11.98 per U.S. dollar, to a high of Ps. 14.37 per U.S. dollar. At December 31, 2013, the exchange rate (noon buying rate) was Ps. 13.0980 to US$ 1.00. On April 4, 2014, the exchange rate was Ps. 13.0265 to US$ 1.00. See “Item 3. Key Information—Exchange Rate Information.” A depreciation of the Mexican peso or local currencies in the countries in which we operate relative to the U.S. dollar increases our cost of raw materials priced in U.S. dollars, including raw materials whose prices are set with reference to the U.S. dollar. In addition, a depreciation of the Mexican peso or local currencies in the countries in which we operate relative to the U.S. dollar will increase our U.S. dollar-denominated debt obligations, which could negatively affect our financial position and results. However, this effect could be offset by a corresponding appreciation of our U.S. dollar denominated cash position.

Operating Leverage

Companies with structural characteristics that result in margin expansion in excess of sales growth are referred to as having high “operating leverage.”

The operating subsidiaries of Coca-Cola FEMSA are engaged, to varying degrees, in capital-intensive activities. The high utilization of the installed capacity of the production facilities results in better fixed cost absorption, as increased output results in higher revenues without additional fixed costs. Absent significant increases in variable costs, gross profit margins will expand when production facilities are operated at higher utilization rates. Alternatively, higher fixed costs will result in lower gross profit margins in periods of lower output.

In addition, the commercial operations of Coca-Cola FEMSA are carried out through extensive distribution networks, the principal fixed assets of which are warehouses and trucks and are designed to handle large volumes of beverages. Fixed costs represent an important proportion of the total distribution expense of Coca-Cola FEMSA. Generally, the higher the volume that passes through the distribution system, the lower the fixed distribution cost as a percentage of the corresponding revenues. As a result, operating margins improve when the distribution capacity is operated at higher utilization rates. Alternatively, periods of decreased utilization because of lower volumes will negatively affect our operating margins.

 

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FEMSA Comercio operations result in a low margin business with relatively fixed costs. These two characteristics make FEMSA Comercio a business with an operating margin that might be affected more easily by a change in sales levels.

Critical Accounting Judgments and Estimates

In the application of our accounting policies, which are described in Note 3 to our audited consolidated financial statements, management is required to make judgments, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

The following are the key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market changes or circumstances arising beyond our control. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.

Impairment of indefinite lived intangible assets, goodwill and other depreciable long-lived assets

Intangible assets with indefinite lives including goodwill are subject to annual impairment tests. An impairment exists when the carrying value of an asset or cash generating unit (“CGU”) exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The fair value less costs to sell calculation is based on available data from binding sales transactions in arm’s length transactions of similar assets or observable market prices less incremental costs for disposing of the asset. In order to determine whether such assets are impaired, we initially calculate an estimation of the value in use of the cash-generating units to which such assets have been allocated. The value in use calculation requires management to estimate the future cash flows expected to arise from the cash-generating unit and a suitable discount rate in order to calculate present value. We review annually the carrying value of our intangible assets with indefinite lives and goodwill for impairment based on recognized valuation techniques. While we believe that our estimates are reasonable, different assumptions regarding such estimates could materially affect our evaluations. Impairment losses are recognized in current earnings in the period the related impairment is determined.

We assess at each reporting date whether there is an indication that a depreciable long lived asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, we estimate the asset’s recoverable amount. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs to sell, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded subsidiaries or other available fair value indicators. The key assumptions used to determine the recoverable amount for our CGUs, including a sensitivity analysis, are further explained in Notes 3.16 and 12 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with defined useful lives

Property, plant and equipment, including returnable bottles as they are expected to provide benefits over a period of more than one year, as well as intangible assets with defined useful lives, are depreciated/amortized over their estimated useful lives. We base our estimates on the experience of our technical personnel as well as on our experience in the industry for similar assets; see Notes 3.12, 3.14, 11 and 12 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

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Post-employment and other long-term employee benefits

We regularly evaluate the reasonableness of the assumptions used in our post-employment and other long-term employee benefit computations. Information about such assumptions is described in Note 16 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Income taxes

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability, and record a deferred tax asset based on our judgment regarding the probability of historical taxable income continuing in the future, projected future taxable income and the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences; see Note 24 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Tax, labor and legal contingencies and provisions

We are subject to various claims and contingencies, related to tax, labor and legal proceedings as described in Note 25 to our audited consolidated financial statements. Due to their nature, such legal proceedings involve inherent uncertainties including, but not limited to, court rulings, negotiations between affected parties and governmental actions. Management periodically assesses the probability of loss for such contingencies and accrues a provision and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. If the potential loss of any claim or legal proceeding is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, we accrue a provision for the estimated loss. Management’s judgment must be exercised to determine the likelihood of such a loss and an estimate of the amount, due to the subjective nature of the loss.

Valuation of financial instruments

We are required to measure all derivative financial instruments at fair value. The fair values of derivative financial instruments are determined considering quoted prices in recognized markets. If such instruments are not traded, fair value is determined by applying techniques based upon technical models supported by sufficient reliable and verifiable data, recognized in the financial sector. We base our forward price curves upon market price quotations. Management believes that the chosen valuation techniques and assumptions used are appropriate in determining the fair value of financial instruments; see Note 20 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Business combinations

Acquisitions of businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by us, liabilities assumed by us to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by us in exchange for control of the acquiree.

At the acquisition date, the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recognized at their fair value, except that:

 

   

Deferred tax assets or liabilities, and assets or liabilities related to employee benefit arrangements are recognized and measured in accordance with IAS 12, “ Income Taxes ” (which we refer to as IAS 12) and IAS 19, “ Employee Benefits ” (which we refer to as IAS 19), respectively;

 

   

Liabilities or equity instruments related to share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree or to our share-based payment arrangements entered into to replace share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree are measured in accordance with IFRS 2, “ Share-based Payment ” (which we refer to as IFRS 2) at the acquisition date, see Note 3.24 to our audited consolidated financial statements; and

 

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Assets (or disposal groups) that are classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5, “ Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations ” (which we refer to as IFRS 5) are measured in accordance with that Standard.

Management’s judgment must be exercised to determine the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree, and the fair value of our previously held equity interest in the acquiree (if any) over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. If, after reassessment, the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree and the fair value of our previously held interest in the acquiree (if any), the excess is recognized immediately in profit or loss as a bargain purchase gain.

For each business combination, with respect to the non-controlling present ownership interests in the acquiree that entitle their holders to a proportionate share of net assets in liquidation, we elect whether to measure such interests at fair value or at the proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets.

Investments in Associates

If we hold, directly or indirectly, 20% or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that we have significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. If we hold, directly or indirectly, less than 20% of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that we do not have significant influence, unless such influence can be clearly demonstrated. Decisions regarding the propriety of utilizing the equity method of accounting for a less than 20%-owned corporate investee require a careful evaluation of voting rights and their impact on our ability to exercise significant influence. Management considers the existence of the following circumstances which may indicate that we are in a position to exercise significant influence over a less than 20%-owned corporate investee:

 

   

Representation on the board of directors or equivalent governing body of the investee;

 

   

Participation in policy-making processes, including participation in decisions about dividends or other distributions;

 

   

Material transactions between us and the investee;

 

   

Interchange of managerial personnel; or

 

   

Provision of essential technical information.

Management also considers the existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently convertible when assessing whether we have significant influence.

In addition, we evaluate certain indicators that provide evidence of significant influence, such as:

 

   

Whether the extent of our ownership is significant relative to other shareholders (i.e. a lack of concentration of other shareholders);

 

   

Whether our significant shareholders, fellow subsidiaries or officers hold additional investment in the investee; and

 

   

Whether we are part of significant investee committees, such as the executive committee or the finance committee.

 

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Joint Arrangements

An arrangement can be a joint arrangement even though not all of its parties have joint control of the arrangement. When we are a party to an arrangement we assess whether the contractual arrangement gives all the parties or a group of the parties, control of the arrangement collectively; joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties that control the arrangement collectively. Management needs to apply judgment when assessing whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, have joint control of an arrangement. When assessing joint control, management considers the following facts and circumstances:

 

   

Whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement, considering the definition of joint control, as described in note 3.11.2 to our audited consolidated financial statements; and

 

   

Whether decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of all the parties, or of a group of the parties.

As mentioned elsewhere in this report and in Note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements, on January 25, 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed the acquisition of 51% of CCBPI. Coca-Cola FEMSA jointly controls CCBPI with The Coca-Cola Company. This is based on the following factors: (i) during the initial four-year period, some relevant activities require joint approval between Coca-Cola FEMSA and The Coca-Cola Company; and (ii) potential voting rights to acquire the remaining 49% of CCBPI are not likely to be exercised in the foreseeable future due to the fact that the call option is “out of the money” as of December 31, 2013. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Corporate Background.”

Future Impact of Recently Issued Accounting Standards not yet in Effect

We have not applied the following new and revised IFRS and IAS, that have been issued but were not yet effective as of December 31, 2013:

 

   

IFRS 9, “Financial Instruments” (which we refer to as IFRS 9) as issued in November 2009, and amended in October 2010, introduces new requirements for the classification and measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities and for derecognition. The standard requires all recognized financial assets that are within the scope of IAS 39, “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement” to be subsequently measured at amortized cost or fair value. Specifically, debt investments that are held within a business model whose objective is to collect the contractual cash flows, and that have contractual cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal outstanding are generally measured at amortized cost at the end of subsequent accounting periods. All other debt investments and equity investments are measured at their fair values at the end of subsequent accounting periods.

The most significant effect of IFRS 9 regarding the classification and measurement of financial liabilities relates to the accounting for changes in fair value of a financial liability (designated as at Fair Value Through Profit or Loss , or “FVTPL”) attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability. Specifically, under IFRS 9, for financial liabilities that are designated as at FVTPL, the amount of change in the fair value of the financial liability that is attributable to changes in the credit risk of that liability is recognized in other comprehensive income, unless the recognition of the effects of changes in the liability’s credit risk in other comprehensive income would create or enlarge an accounting mismatch in profit or loss. Changes in fair value attributable to a financial liability’s credit risk are not subsequently reclassified to profit or loss. Previously, under IAS 39, the entire amount of the change in the fair value of the financial liability designated as at FVTPL was recognized in profit or loss.

 

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IFRS 9 was further amended in November 2013, and as such introduces a new chapter on hedge accounting, putting in place a new hedge accounting model that is designed to be more closely aligned with how entities undertake risk management activities when hedging financial and non-financial risk exposures. In addition, IFRS 9 as amended in 2013 permits an entity to apply only those requirements introduced in IFRS 9 as amended in 2010 for the presentation of gains and losses on financial liabilities designated as at fair value through profit or loss, without applying the other requirements of IFRS 9, meaning the portion of the change in fair value related to changes in the entity’s own credit risk can be presented in other comprehensive income rather than within profit or loss.

IFRS 9 as amended in 2013 removes the mandatory effective date that had been established for IFRS 9 in 2009 and 2010, leaving the effective date open pending the finalization of the impairment and classification and measurement requirements. We have decided that the adoption of this standard will not take place until IFRS 9 is completed. It is not practicable to provide a reasonable estimate of the effect of IFRS 9 until the final version has been issued.

 

   

Amendments to IAS 19 (2011) “Employee Benefits” : With regards to employee contributions to defined benefit plans, these amendments clarify the requirements that relate to how contributions from employees or third parties that are linked to service should be attributed to periods of service. In addition, they permit a practical expedient if the amount of the contributions is independent of the number of years of service, in that contributions can be, but are not required to be, recognized as a reduction in the service cost in the period in which the related service is rendered. The amendments to IAS 19 are effective for annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. These amendments have not been early adopted by us and are not expected to have a material effect on our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to IAS 32,” Offsetting Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities” : These amendments clarify existing application issues relating to the offsetting requirements. Specifically, the amendments clarify the meaning of “currently has a legally enforceable right of set-off” and “simultaneous realization and settlement”. The amendments to IAS 32 are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014, with retrospective application required. These amendments have not been early adopted by us and are not expected to have a material effect on our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to IAS 36 “Impairment of Assets” : These amendments reduce the circumstances in which the recoverable amount of assets or cash-generating units is required to be disclosed, clarify the disclosures required, and introduce an explicit requirement to disclose the discount rate used in determining impairment (or reversals) where recoverable amount (based on fair value less costs of disposal) is determined using a present value technique. The amendments to IAS 36 are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014. These amendments have not been early adopted by us and are not expected to have a material effect on our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Amendments to IAS 39 “Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement” : These amendments clarify that there is no need to discontinue hedge accounting if a hedging derivative is novated, provided certain criteria are met. A novation indicates an event where the original parties to a derivative agree that one or more clearing counterparties replace their original counterparty to become the new counterparty to each of the parties. In order to apply the amendments and continue hedge accounting, novation to a central counterparty (CCP) must happen as a consequence of laws or regulations or the introduction of laws or regulations. The amendments to IAS 39 have not been early adopted by us and are not expected to have a material effect on our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

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Annual Improvements 2010-2012 Cycle : These Annual Improvements make amendments to: IFRS 2 “Share-based payment,” by amending the definitions of vesting condition and market condition, and adding definitions for performance condition and service condition; IFRS 3 “Business combinations,” by requiring contingent consideration that is classified as an asset or a liability to be measured at fair value at each reporting date; IFRS 8 “Operating segments,” by requiring disclosure of the judgments made by management in applying the aggregation criteria to operating segments and clarifying that reconciliations of segment assets are only required if segment assets are reported regularly; IFRS 13 “Fair value measurement,” by clarifying that issuing IFRS 13 and amending IFRS 9 and IAS 39 did not remove the ability to measure certain short-term receivables and payables on an undiscounted basis (amends basis for conclusions only); IAS 16 “Property, plant and equipment” and IAS 38 “Intangible assets,” by clarifying that the gross amount of property, plant and equipment is adjusted in a manner consistent with a revaluation of the carrying amount; and IAS 24 “Related party Disclosures,” by clarifying how payments to entities providing management services are to be disclosed. These Annual Improvements are applicable to annual periods beginning on or after 1 July 2014. We have yet to complete our evaluation of whether these improvements will have a significant impact on our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

   

Annual Improvements 2011-2013 Cycle : These Annual Improvements make amendments to the following standards that are applicable to us: IFRS 3, by clarifying that the standard excludes from its scope the accounting for the formation of a joint arrangement in the financial statements of the joint arrangement itself; IFRS 13, by clarifying the scope of the portfolio exception of paragraph 52, which permits an entity to measure the fair value of a group of financial assets and financial liabilities on the basis of the price that would be received by selling a net long position for a particular risk exposure or by transferring a net short position for a particular risk exposure in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date under current market conditions. These Annual Improvements are applicable to annual periods beginning on or after July 1, 2014. We have yet to complete our evaluation of whether these improvements will have a significant impact on our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

   

IFRIC 21, “Levies” : This Interpretation provides guidance on when to recognize a liability for a levy imposed by a government, both for levies that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 37, “Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets” and those where the timing and amount of the levy is certain. The Interpretation identifies the obligating event for the recognition of a liability as the activity that triggers the payment of the levy in accordance with the relevant legislation. It provides guidance on recognition of a liability to pay levies, where the liability is recognized progressively if the obligating event occurs over a period of time; and if an obligation is triggered on reaching a minimum threshold, the liability is recognized when that minimum threshold is reached. This Interpretation is effective for accounting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2014, with early adoption permitted. We have not early adopted this IFRIC, and we have yet to complete our evaluation of whether it will have a material impact on our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

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Operating Results

The following table sets forth our consolidated income statement under IFRS for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2013 (1)     2013     2012     2011  
     (in millions of U.S. dollars and Mexican pesos)  

Net sales

   $  19,606      Ps.  256,804      Ps.  236,922      Ps.  200,426   

Other operating revenues

     99        1,293        1,387        1,114   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenues

     19,705        258,097        238,309        201,540   

Cost of goods sold

     11,333        148,443        137,009        117,244   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     8,372        109,654        101,300        84,296   

Administrative expenses

     761        9,963        9,552        8,172   

Selling expenses

     5,312        69,574        62,086        50,685   

Other income

     50        651        1,745        381   

Other expenses

     (110     (1,439     (1,973     (2,072

Interest expense

     (331     (4,331     (2,506     (2,302

Interest income

     94        1,225        783        1,014   

Foreign exchange (loss) gain, net

     (55     (724     (176     1,148   

Monetary position (loss) gain, net

     (33     (427     (13     53   

Market value gain (loss) on financial instruments

     1        8        8        (109

Income before income taxes and share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method

     1,915        25,080        27,530        23,552   

Income taxes

     592        7,756        7,949        7,618   

Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes

     369        4,831        8,470        4,967   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Consolidated net income

   $ 1,692      Ps. 22,155      Ps. 28,051      Ps. 20,901   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Controlling interest net income

     1,216        15,922        20,707        15,332   

Non-controlling interest net income

     476        6,233        7,344        5,569   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Consolidated net income

   $ 1,692      Ps. 22,155      Ps. 28,051      Ps. 20,901   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Translation to U.S. dollar amounts at an exchange rate of Ps. 13.0980 to US$ 1.00, provided solely for the convenience of the reader.

The following table sets forth certain operating results by reportable segment under IFRS for each of our segments for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     Percentage Growth (Decrease)  
     2013      2012     2011      2013 vs. 2012     2012 vs. 2011  

Net sales

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     Ps. 155,175         Ps. 146,907        Ps. 122,638         5.6%        19.8%   

FEMSA Comercio

     97,572         86,433        74,112         12.9%        16.6%   

Total revenues

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     156,011         147,739        123,224         5.6%        19.9%   

FEMSA Comercio

     97,572         86,433        74,112         12.9%        16.6%   

Cost of goods sold

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     83,076         79,109        66,693         5.0%        18.6%   

FEMSA Comercio

     62,986         56,183        48,636         12.1%        15.5%   

Gross profit

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     72,935         68,630        56,531         6.3%        21.4%   

FEMSA Comercio

     34,586         30,250        25,476         14.3%        18.7%   

Administrative expenses

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     6,487         6,217        5,140         4.3%        21.0%   

FEMSA Comercio

     1,883         1,666        1,433         13.0%        16.3%   

Selling expenses

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     44,828         40,223        32,093         11.4%        25.3%   

FEMSA Comercio

     24,707         21,686        18,353         13.9%        18.2%   

Depreciation

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     6,371         5,078        3,850         25.5%        31.9%   

FEMSA Comercio

     2,328         1,940        1,685         20.0%        15.1%   

Gross margin (1)(2)

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     46.7%         46.5%        45.9%         0.2p.p        0.6 p.p. 

FEMSA Comercio

     35.4%         35.0%        34.4%         0.4p.p        0.6 p.p. 

Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes

            

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     289         180        86         60.6%        109.3%   

FEMSA Comercio

     11         (23     —           147.8%        N/a   

CB Equity (3)

     4,587         8,311        4,880         (44.8%     70.3%   

 

(1) Gross margin is calculated with reference to total revenues.

 

(2) As used herein, p.p refers to a percentage point increase (or decrease) contrasted with a straight percentage increase (or decrease).

 

(3) CB Equity holds Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. shares.

 

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Results from our Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2013 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2012

FEMSA Consolidated

FEMSA’s consolidated total revenues increased 8.3% to Ps. 258,097 million in 2013 compared to Ps. 238,309 million in 2012. Both beverages and retail operations contributed positively to this revenue growth. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s total revenues increased 5.6% to Ps. 156,011 million, driven by the integration of the beverage divisions of Grupo Fomento Queretano and Yoli in Mexico and Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa in Brazil. FEMSA Comercio’s revenues increased 12.9% to Ps. 97,572 million, mainly driven by the opening of 1,120 net new stores combined with an average increase of 2.4% in same-store sales.

Consolidated gross profit increased 8.2% to Ps. 109,654 million in 2013 compared to Ps. 101,300 million in 2012. Gross margin remained stable compared to 2012 at 42.5% of consolidated total revenues.

Consolidated administrative expenses increased 4.3% to Ps. 9,963 million in 2013 compared to Ps. 9,552 million in 2012. As a percentage of total revenues, consolidated administrative expenses decreased from 4.0% in 2012 to 3.9% in 2013.

Consolidated selling expenses increased 12.1% to Ps. 69,574 million in 2013 as compared to Ps. 62,086 million in 2012. This increase was attributable to greater selling expenses at Coca-Cola FEMSA and FEMSA Comercio. As a percentage of total revenues, selling expenses increased 0.90 percentage points, from 26.0% in 2012 to 26.9% in 2013.

Some of our subsidiaries pay management fees to us in consideration for corporate services we provide to them. These fees are recorded as administrative expenses in the respective business segments. Our subsidiaries’ payments of management fees are eliminated in consolidation and, therefore, have no effect on our consolidated operating expenses.

Other income mainly includes gains on sales of shares and long-lived assets and the write-off of certain contingencies. During 2013, other income decreased to Ps. 651 million from Ps. 1,745 million in 2012, due to a tough comparison primarily driven by the net effect of the sale of Quimiproductos in the fourth quarter of 2012.

Other expenses mainly include disposal and impairment of long-lived assets, contingencies, as well as their subsequent interest and penalties, severance payments derived from restructuring programs and donations. During 2013, other expenses decreased to Ps. 1,439 million from Ps. 1,973 million in 2012.

Net financing expenses increased to Ps. 4,249 million from Ps. 1,904 million in 2012, driven by an interest expense of Ps. 4,331 million in 2013 compared to Ps. 2,506 million in 2012 resulting from higher financing expenses related to bonds issued by FEMSA and Coca-Cola FEMSA (“Net financing expenses” includes interest expense, interest income, net foreign exchange (loss) gain, net monetary position (loss) gain and market value gain (loss) on financial instruments).

 

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Our accounting provision for income taxes in 2013 was Ps. 7,756 million, as compared to Ps. 7,949 million in 2012, resulting in an effective tax rate of 30.9% in 2013, as compared to 28.9% in 2012.

Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes, decreased 42.9% to Ps. 4,831 million in 2013 compared with Ps. 8,470 million in 2012, mainly driven by a tough comparable base caused by a non-cash exceptional gain related to the revaluation of certain equity interests held by Heineken in Asia in the fourth quarter of 2012.

Consolidated net income was Ps. 22,155 million in 2013 compared to Ps. 28,051 million in 2012, resulting from a tough comparable base caused by a non-cash exceptional gain related to the revaluation of certain equity interests held by Heineken in Asia in the fourth quarter of 2012, as well as by higher financing expenses, which were modestly offset by the growth in income from operations. Controlling interest net income amounted to Ps. 15,922 million in 2013 compared to Ps. 20,707 million in 2012, which difference was also due principally to a tough comparable base caused by a non-cash exceptional gain related to the revaluation of certain equity interests held by Heineken in Asia in the fourth quarter of 2012. Controlling interest net income per FEMSA Unit in 2013 was Ps. 4.45 (US$ 3.40 per ADS) (“FEMSA Units” consist of FEMSA BD Units and FEMSA B Units. Each FEMSA BD Unit is comprised of one Series B Share, two Series D-B Shares and two Series D-L Shares. Each FEMSA B Unit is comprised of five Series B Shares. The number of FEMSA Units outstanding as of December 31, 2013 was 3,578,226,270 which is equivalent to the total number of FEMSA Shares outstanding as of the same date, divided by five).

Coca-Cola FEMSA

Coca-Cola FEMSA consolidated total revenues increased 5.6% to Ps. 156,011 million in 2013, as compared to 2012. Revenue growth of 6.9% in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexico and Central America division (including Venezuela), including the integration of Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli in its Mexican operations, coupled with a 4.6% growth in its South America division, including the integration of Spaipa and Companhia Fluminense in Brazil, compensated for the negative translation effect generated by the devaluation of the currencies in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s South America division. Excluding the recently integrated territories in Mexico and Brazil, total revenues reached Ps. 149,210 million, an increase of 1.0% with respect to 2012. On a currency neutral basis and excluding the non-comparable effect of Grupo Fomento Queretano, Grupo Yoli, Spaipa and Companhia Fluminense, total revenues increased 16.3% in 2013 as compared to 2012.

Total sales volume increased 5.2% to 3,204.6 million unit cases in 2013, as compared to 2012. Excluding the integration of Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexican operations and Spaipa and Companhia Fluminense in its Brazilian operations, volumes remained flat at 3,055.2 million unit cases in 2013. On the same basis, the still beverage category grew 8.5%, mainly driven by the performance of the Jugos del Valle line of business, Powerade and FUZE tea across Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories. In addition and excluding the newly integrated territories, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio grew 5.3%, driven by the performance of Ciel, Bonaqua , and Brisa . These increases compensated for flat volumes in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverage category and a 2.2% decrease in its bulk water business.

Consolidated average price per unit case decreased 0.3%, reaching Ps. 47.15 in 2013, as compared to Ps. 47.27 in 2012, mainly due to the negative translation effect resulting from the depreciation of the currencies of our South America division, including Venezuela. In local currency, average price per unit case increased in most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories mainly driven by price increases implemented during the year.

Gross profit increased 6.3% to Ps. 72,935 million in 2013, as compared to 2012. Cost of goods sold increased 5.0%, mainly as a result of lower sugar prices in most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories in combination with the appreciation of the average exchange rate of the Mexican peso, which compensated for the depreciation of the average exchange rate of the Venezuelan bolivar, the Argentine peso, the Brazilian real and the Colombian peso as applied to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s U.S. dollar-denominated raw material costs. Gross margin reached 46.7%, an increase of 20 basis points as compared to 2012.

 

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For Coca-Cola FEMSA, the components of cost of goods sold include raw materials (principally soft drink concentrate, sweeteners and packaging materials), depreciation costs attributable to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production facilities, wages and other employment costs associated with the labor force employed at its production facilities and certain overhead costs. Concentrate prices are determined as a percentage of the retail price of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in local currency net of applicable taxes. Packaging materials, mainly PET and aluminum, and HFCS, used as a sweetener in some countries, are denominated in U.S. dollars.

Administrative and selling expenses as a percentage of total revenues increased 150 basis points to 32.9% in 2013 as compared to 2012. Administrative and selling expenses in absolute terms increased 10.5%, mainly as a result of the integration of Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexican operations and Spaipa and Companhia Fluminense in its Brazilian operations. In addition, administrative and selling expenses grew as a consequence of higher labor and freight costs in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s South America division and continued marketing investments to support Coca-Cola FEMSA’s marketplace execution and bolster its returnable packaging base across its territories.

As used by Coca-Cola FEMSA, the term “comprehensive financing result” refers to the combined financial effects of net interest expense, net financial foreign exchange gains or losses, and net gains or losses on monetary position from its Venezuelan operations, as the only hyperinflationary country in which Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Net financial foreign exchange gains or losses represent the impact of changes in foreign-exchange rates on financial assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than local currencies and gains or losses resulting from derivative financial instruments. A financial foreign exchange loss arises if a liability is denominated in a foreign currency that appreciates relative to the local currency between the date the liability is incurred or the beginning of the period, whichever comes first, and the date it is repaid or the end of the period, whichever comes first, as the appreciation of the foreign currency results in an increase in the amount of local currency, which must be exchanged to repay the specified amount of the foreign currency liability.

Comprehensive financing result for Coca-Cola FEMSA in 2013 recorded an expense of Ps. 3,772 million as compared to an expense of Ps. 1,246 million in 2012. This increase was mainly driven by higher interest expense due to a larger debt position and a foreign exchange loss mainly as a result of the depreciation of the end-of-period exchange rate of the Mexican peso during the year as applied to a higher U.S. dollar-denominated net debt position.

Income taxes decreased to Ps. 5,731 million in 2013, from Ps. 6,274 million in 2012. In 2013, taxes as a percentage of income before taxes and share of profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method were 33.3%, as compared to 31.4% in 2012. The difference was mainly driven by lower effective tax rates imposed in 2012 resulting from a tax benefit related to interest on capital derived from a dividend declared by Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian subsidiary.

On January 25, 2013, as part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s efforts to expand its geographic reach, it acquired a 51% non-controlling majority stake in CCBPI. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently recognizes the results of CCBPI using the equity method and reflects such results in its Mexico and Central America division. In 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA recognized equity income of Ps. 108 million regarding its economic interest in CCBPI. Coca-Cola FEMSA reports its equity method investment in CCBPI as a separate reporting segment. For further information see Note 10 to our consolidated financial statements.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s consolidated net controlling interest income decreased 13.4% to Ps. 11,543 million in 2013 as compared to 2012. Earnings per share in 2013 were Ps. 5.61 (Ps. 56.14 per Coca-Cola FEMSA ADS) computed on the basis of 2,056.0 million shares outstanding (each Coca-Cola FEMSA ADS represents 10 Coca-Cola FEMSA Series L shares) as of December 31, 2013.

FEMSA Comercio

FEMSA Comercio total revenues increased 12.9% to Ps. 97,572 million in 2013 compared to Ps. 86,433 million in 2012, primarily as a result of the opening of 1,120 net new stores during 2013, together with an average increase in same-store sales of 2.4%. As of December 31, 2013, there were a total of 11,721 stores in Mexico. FEMSA Comercio same-store sales increased an average of 2.4% compared to 2012, driven by a 2.8% increase in average customer ticket that more than offset a 0.5% decrease in store traffic.

 

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Cost of goods sold increased 12.1% to Ps. 62,986 million in 2013, below total revenue growth, compared with Ps. 56,183 million in 2012. As a result, gross profit reached Ps. 34,586 million in 2013, which represented a 14.3% increase from 2012. Gross margin expanded 0.40 percentage points to reach 35.4% of total revenues. This increase reflects (i) a positive mix shift due to the growth of higher margin categories, and (ii) a more effective collaboration and execution with our key supplier partners, including higher and more efficient joint use of promotion-related marketing resources, as well as objective-based incentives.

Administrative expenses increased 13.0% to Ps. 1,883 million in 2013, compared with Ps. 1,666 million in 2012; however, as a percentage of sales, they remained stable at 1.9%. Selling expenses increased 13.9% to Ps. 24,707 million in 2013 compared with Ps. 21,686 million in 2012, largely driven by the growing number of stores and distribution centers and specialized routes as well as incremental expenses related to new initiatives.

Results from our Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2012 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2011

FEMSA Consolidated

FEMSA’s consolidated total revenues increased 18.2% to Ps. 238,309 million in 2012 compared to Ps. 201,540 million in 2011. All of FEMSA’s operations—beverages and retail—contributed positively to this revenue growth. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s total revenues increased 19.9% to Ps. 147,739 million, driven by double-digit total revenue growth in both of its divisions and the integration of the beverage divisions of Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano in Mexico. FEMSA Comercio’s revenues increased 16.6% to Ps. 86,433 million, mainly driven by the opening of 1,040 net new stores combined with an average increase of 7.7% in same-store sales.

Consolidated gross profit increased 20.2% to Ps. 101,300 million in 2012 compared to Ps. 84,296 million in 2011, driven by Coca-Cola FEMSA and FEMSA Comercio. Gross margin increased by 0.70 percentage points, from 41.8% of consolidated total revenues in 2011 to 42.5% in 2012.

Consolidated administrative expenses increased 16.9% to Ps. 9,552 million in 2012 compared to Ps. 8,172 million in 2011. As a percentage of total revenues, consolidated administrative expenses decreased from 4.1% in 2011 to 4.0% in 2012.

Consolidated selling expenses increased 22.5% to Ps. 62,086 million in 2012 as compared to Ps. 50,685 million in 2011. This increase was attributable to greater selling expenses at Coca-Cola FEMSA and FEMSA Comercio. As a percentage of total revenues, selling expenses increased 0.90 percentage points, from 25.1% in 2011 to 26.0% in 2012.

Other expenses mainly include disposal and impairment of long-lived assets, contingencies, as well as their subsequent interest and penalties, severance payments derived from restructuring programs and donations. During 2012, other expenses decreased to Ps. 1,973 million from Ps. 2,072 million in 2011. In both 2012 and 2011, other expenses was largely driven by the net effect of certain items, such as a new labor law in Venezuela (LOTTT) in 2012, and losses on significant disposals of long-lived assets in 2011.

Other income mainly includes gains on sales of shares and long-lived assets and the write-off of certain contingencies. During 2012, other income increased to Ps. 1,745 million from Ps. 381 million in 2011, largely driven by the net effect of certain items driven by the sale of Quimiproductos in the fourth quarter of 2012.

Net financing expenses increased to Ps. 1,904 million from Ps. 196 million in 2011, driven by a non-cash foreign exchange loss of Ps. 176 million in 2012 compared to a tough comparison base of a non-cash foreign exchange gain of Ps. 1,148 million in 2011 resulting from the sequential appreciation of the Mexican Peso and its impact on the dollar-denominated portion of our cash balance.

 

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Our accounting provision for income taxes in 2012 was Ps. 7,949 million, as compared to Ps. 7,618 million in 2011, resulting in an effective tax rate of 28.9% in 2012, as compared to 32.3% in 2011.

Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures was accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes. This line item increased 70.5% to Ps. 8,470 million in 2012 compared with Ps. 4,967 million in 2011, mainly driven by a non-cash exceptional gain related to the revaluation of certain previously held equity interests of Heineken in connection with an acquisition made in Asia.

Consolidated net income was Ps. 28,051 million in 2012 compared to Ps. 20,901 million in 2011, a difference mainly attributable to Coca-Cola FEMSA, FEMSA Comercio and a non-cash exceptional gain related to the revaluation of certain previously held equity interests of Heineken in Asia . Controlling interest net income amounted to Ps. 20,707 million in 2012 compared to Ps. 15,332 million in 2011, which difference was also due principally to a non-cash exceptional gain related to the revaluation of certain previously held equity interests of Heineken in Asia. Controlling interest net income in 2012 per FEMSA Unit was Ps. 5.79 (US$ 4.45 per ADS).

Coca-Cola FEMSA

Coca-Cola FEMSA consolidated total revenues increased 19.9% to Ps. 147,739 million in 2012, as compared to 2011, driven by double-digit total revenue growth in both of its divisions, including Venezuela, and including the integration of Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano into its Mexican operations. Excluding the non-comparable effect of Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexican operations, total revenues grew 11.6%. On a currency neutral basis and excluding the non-comparable effect of Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano in Mexico, total revenues increased 15.0%.

Total sales volume increased 15.0% to 3,046.2 million unit cases in 2012, as compared to 2011. The integration of Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexican operations accounted for 332.7 million unit cases, of which sparkling beverages represented 62.5%, water 5.1%, bulk water 27.9% and still beverages 4.5%. Excluding non-comparable effects of Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano in Mexico, total sales volumes grew 2.4% to 2,713.5 million unit cases. On the same basis, the sparkling beverage category grew 2.0%, mainly driven by the Coca-Cola brand, which accounted for more than 65% of incremental volumes of Coca-Cola FEMSA. The still beverage category grew 13.5%, mainly driven by the performance of the Jugos del Valle line of business in Mexico, Venezuela and Brazil, and the Del Prado line of business in Central America, representing close to 30% of incremental volumes. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio, including bulk water, grew 0.9%, and contributed the balance.

Consolidated average price per unit case increased by 4.4%, reaching Ps. 47.27 in 2012, as compared to Ps. 45.29 in 2011. In local currency, average price per unit case increased in all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, mainly driven by price increases implemented during the year and higher volumes of sparkling beverages, which carry higher average prices per unit case.

Cost of goods sold increased 18.6% to Ps. 79,109, mainly as a result of higher sweetener costs in Mexico during the first half of the year and the depreciation of the average exchange rate of the Brazilian real, the Argentinian peso and the Mexican peso as applied to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s U.S. dollar-denominated raw material costs. Gross margin reached 46.5% in 2012, an expansion of 60 basis points as compared to 2011. Gross profit increased 21.4% to Ps. 68,630 million in 2012, as compared to 2011.

Administrative expenses increased 21.0% to Ps. 6,217 in 2012, compared with Ps. 5,140 in 2011; however, as a percentage of sales they remained stable at 4.2%

Selling expenses, in absolute terms, increased 25.3%, mainly as a result of the integration of Grupo Tampico, Grupo CIMSA and Grupo Fomento Queretano in Mexico. In addition, selling expenses grew as a consequence of higher labor costs in Venezuela and Brazil in combination with higher labor and freight costs in Argentina, and continued marketing investment to reinforce Coca-Cola FEMSA’s execution in the marketplace, widen its cooler coverage and broaden its returnable base availability across its territories. During the year Coca-Cola FEMSA also recorded additional expenses related to the development of information systems and commercial capabilities in connection with its commercial models, and certain investments related, among others, to the development of new lines of business and non-carbonated beverage categories.

 

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FEMSA Comercio

FEMSA Comercio total revenues increased 16.6% to Ps. 86,433 million in 2012 compared to Ps. 74,112 million in 2011, primarily as a result of the opening of 1,040 net new stores during 2012, together with an average increase in same-store sales of 7.7%. As of December 31, 2012, there were a total of 10,601 stores in Mexico. FEMSA Comercio same-store sales increased an average of 7.7% compared to 2011, driven by a 3.8% increase in store traffic and 3.8% in average ticket.

Cost of goods sold increased 15.5% to Ps. 56,183 million in 2012, below total revenue growth, compared with Ps. 48,636 million in 2011. As a result, gross profit reached Ps. 30,250 million in 2012, which represented a 18.7% increase from 2011. Gross margin expanded 0.60 percentage points to reach 35.0% of total revenues. This increase reflects a positive mix shift due to the growth of higher margin categories, a more effective collaboration and execution with our key supplier partners, including our achievement of certain sales objectives with some of these partners and the corresponding benefit accrued to us, a more efficient use of promotion-related marketing resources, and a better execution of segmented pricing strategies across markets.

Administrative expenses increased 16.3% to Ps. 1,666 million in 2012, compared with Ps. 1,433 million in 2011; however, as a percentage of sales, they remained stable at 1.9%.

Selling expenses increased 18.2% to Ps. 21,686 million in 2012 compared with Ps. 18,353 million in 2011, largely driven by the growing number of stores as well as incremental expenses relating to, among other things, the continued strengthening of FEMSA Comercio’s organizational and IT structure, and the development of specialized distribution routes aimed at enabling our prepared food initiatives.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

Liquidity

Each of our sub-holding companies generally finances its operational and capital requirements on an independent basis. As of December 31, 2013, 79% of our outstanding consolidated total indebtedness was at the level of our sub-holding companies. This structure is attributable, in part, to the inclusion of third parties in the capital structure of Coca-Cola FEMSA. Anticipating liquidity needs for general corporate purposes, in May 2013 we issued US$ 300 million in aggregate principal amount of 2.875% Senior Notes due 2023 and US$ 700 million in aggregate principal amount of 4.375% Senior Notes due 2043. In addition, in November 2013 and January 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA issued US$ 1,000 million in aggregate principal amount of 2.375% Senior Notes due 2018, US$ 900 million in aggregate principal amount of 3.875% Senior Notes due 2023 and US$ 600 million in aggregate principal amount of 5.250% Senior Notes due 2043. We may decide to incur additional indebtedness at our holding company in the future to finance the operations and capital requirements of our subsidiaries or significant acquisitions, investments or capital expenditures. As a holding company, we depend on dividends and other distributions from our subsidiaries to service our indebtedness and to finance our operations and capital requirements.

We continuously evaluate opportunities to pursue acquisitions or engage in joint ventures or other transactions. We would expect to finance any significant future transactions with a combination of cash from operations, long-term indebtedness and capital stock.

Our principal source of liquidity has generally been cash generated from our operations. We have traditionally been able to rely on cash generated from operations because a significant majority of the sales of Coca-Cola FEMSA and FEMSA Comercio are on a cash or short-term credit basis, and OXXO stores are able to finance a significant portion of their initial and ongoing inventories with supplier credit. Our principal use of cash has generally been for capital expenditure programs, debt repayment and dividend payments. In our opinion, our working capital is sufficient for our present requirements.

 

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The following is a summary of the principal sources and uses of cash for the years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011, from our consolidated statement of cash flows:

Principal Sources and Uses of Cash

Years ended December 31, 2013, 2012 and 2011

(in millions of Mexican pesos)

 

     2013      2012      2011  

Net cash flows provided by operating activities

     Ps. 28,758         Ps. 30,785         Ps. 21,247   

Net cash flows used in investing activities (1)

     (55,231)         (14,643)         (18,089)   

Net cash flows provided by (used in) financing activities (2)

     20,584         (3,418)         (6,258)   

Dividends paid

     (16,493)         (9,186)         (6,625)   

 

(1) Includes business acquisitions, investments in property, plant and equipment, investment in shares and other assets.

 

(2) Includes proceeds from borrowings, payments of loans and dividends declared and paid.

Our sub-holding companies generally incur short-term indebtedness in the event that they are temporarily unable to finance operations or meet any capital requirements with cash from operations. A significant decline in the business of any of our sub-holding companies may affect the sub-holding company’s ability to fund its capital requirements. A significant and prolonged deterioration in the economies in which we operate or in our businesses may affect our ability to obtain short-term and long-term credit or to refinance existing indebtedness on terms satisfactory to us.

Our consolidated total indebtedness as of December 31, 2013 was Ps. 76,748 million compared to Ps. 37,342 million in 2012 and Ps. 29,392 million as of December 31, 2011. Short-term debt (including maturities of long-term debt) and long-term debt were Ps. 3,827 million and Ps. 72,921 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2013, as compared to Ps. 8,702 million and Ps. 28,640 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2012, and Ps. 5,573 million and Ps. 23,819 million, respectively, as of December 31, 2011. Cash and cash equivalents were Ps. 27,259 million as of December 31, 2013, as compared to Ps. 36,521 million as of December 31, 2012 and Ps. 25,841 million as of December 31, 2011.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any material off-balance sheet arrangements.

 

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Contractual Obligations

The table below sets forth our contractual obligations as of December 31, 2013.

 

     Maturity  
     Less than
1 year
     1 - 3 years      3 - 5 years      In excess of
5 years
     Total  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos)  

Long-Term Debt

              

Mexican pesos

     Ps. 1,368         Ps. 5,281         Ps. 3,630         Ps. 9,987         Ps. 20,266   

Brazilian reais

     204         166         92         42         504   

Colombian pesos

     913         582         —           —           1,495   

U.S. dollars

     97         1,592         17,299         33,363         52,351   

Argentine pesos

     439         99         —           —           538   

Capital Leases

              

Brazilian reais

     277         465         241         82         1,065   

Interest payments (1)

              

Mexican pesos

     1,147         1,804         1,386         2,284         6,621   

Brazilian reais

     77         86         70         21         254   

Colombian pesos

     68         14         —           —           82   

U.S. dollars

     1,456         2,895         2,778         9,268         16,397   

Argentine pesos

     134         12         —           —           146   

Interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps (2)

              

Mexican pesos

     1,001         2,274         1,326         1,794         6,395   

Brazilian reais

     2,372         4,671         4,422         13,469         24,934   

Colombian pesos

     83         19         —           —           102   

U.S. dollars

     890         3,112         1,385         3,394         8,781   

Argentine pesos

     126         10         —           —           136   

Operating leases

              

Mexican pesos

     3,067         5,726         5,193         13,801         27,787   

U.S. dollars

     141         264         245         246         896   

Others

     76         78         6         6         166   

Commodity price contracts

              

Sugar (3)

     1,183         833         —           —           2,016   

Aluminum (3)

     205         —           —           —           205   

Expected benefits to be paid for pension and retirement plans, seniority premiums, post-retirement medical services and post-employment

     590         653         809         2,548         4,600   

Other long-term liabilities (4)

     —           —           —           7,785         Ps.7,785   

 

(1) Interest was calculated using long-term debt as of and interest rate amounts in effect on December 31, 2013 without considering interest rate swaps agreements. The debt and applicable interest rates in effect are shown in Note 18 to our audited consolidated financial statements. Liabilities denominated in U.S. dollars were translated to Mexican pesos at an exchange rate of Ps. 13.0765 per US$ 1.00, the exchange rate quoted to us by Banco de México for the settlement of obligations in foreign currencies on December 31, 2013.

 

(2) Reflects the amount of future payments that we would be required to make. The amounts were calculated by applying the rates giving effect to interest rate swaps and cross currency swaps applied to long-term debt as of December 31, 2013, and the market value of the unhedged cross currency swaps (the amount of the debt used in the calculation of the interest considers converting only the units of investments debt for the related cross currency swap, and it also includes the effect of related interest rate swaps).

 

(3) Reflects the notional amount of the futures and forward contracts used to hedge sugar and aluminum cost with a fair value liability of Ps. 302 million; see Note 20.6 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(4) Other long-term liabilities include provisions and others, but not deferred taxes. Other long-term liabilities additionally reflects those liabilities whose maturity date is undefined and depends on a series of circumstances out of our control, therefore these liabilities have been considered to have a maturity of more than five years.

As of December 31, 2013, Ps. 3,827 million of our total consolidated indebtedness was short-term debt (including maturities of long-term debt).

As of December 31, 2013, our consolidated average cost of borrowing, after giving effect to the cross currency and interest rate swaps, was approximately 4.7%, a decrease of 0.60 percentage points compared to 5.3% in 2012 (the total amount of the debt used in the calculation of this percentage considers converting only the units of investments debt for the related cross currency swap, and it also includes the effect of related interest rate swaps). As of December 31, 2013, after giving effect to cross currency swaps, approximately 46.1% of our total consolidated indebtedness was denominated and payable in Mexican pesos, 16.7% in U.S. dollars, 2.0% in Colombian pesos, 1.4% in Argentine pesos and the remaining 33.8% in Brazilian reais.

 

74


Table of Contents

Overview of Debt Instruments

The following table shows the allocations of total debt of our company as of December 31, 2013:

 

     Total Debt Profile of the Company  
     FEMSA
and Others
     Coca-Cola
FEMSA
     FEMSA
Comercio
     Total Debt  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos)  

Short-term Debt

           

Argentine pesos :

           

Bank loans

     —            Ps. 495          —            Ps. 495    

Brazilian reais

           

Bank loans

     34          —            —            34    

Long-term Debt (1)

           

Mexican pesos:

           

Bank loans

     —            4,132          —            4,132    

Units of Investment (UDIs)

     3,630          —            —            3,630    

Senior notes

     —            12,504          —            12,504    

U.S. dollars:

           

Bank loans

     —            5,966          —            5,966    

Senior Notes

     12,113          34,272          —            46,385    

Brazilian reais:

           

Bank loans

     365          139          —            504    

Capital leases

     106          959          —            1,065    

Colombian pesos:

           

Bank loans

     —            1,456          39          1,495    

Argentine pesos:

           

Bank loans

     —            538          —            538    

Total

     Ps. 16,248          Ps. 60,461          Ps. 39          Ps. 76,748    

Average Cost (2)

           

Mexican pesos

     4.9%         5.8%         —            5.4%   

U.S. dollars

     —            6.3%         —            6.3%   

Brazilian reais

     7.3%         9.3%