Fomento Economico Mexicano SAB de CV
MEXICAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INC (Form: 20-F, Received: 04/21/2016 06:05:20)
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 21, 2016

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13

OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

Commission file number 001-35934

Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Mexican Economic Development, Inc.

(Translation of registrant’s name into English)

United Mexican States

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

General Anaya No. 601 Pte.

Colonia Bella Vista

Monterrey, NL 64410 Mexico

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

Juan F. Fonseca

General Anaya No. 601 Pte.

Colonia Bella Vista

Monterrey, NL 64410 Mexico

(52-818) 328-6167

[email protected]

(Name, telephone, e-mail and/or facsimile number and

address of company contact person)

 

 

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

Title of each class:

        

Name of each exchange on which registered:

American Depositary Shares, each representing 10 BD Units, and each BD Unit consisting of one Series B Share, two Series D-B Shares and two Series D-L Shares, without par value      New York Stock Exchange
2.875% Senior Notes due 2023      New York Stock Exchange
4.375% Senior Notes due 2043      New York Stock Exchange

 


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Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act:

None

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report:

 

2,161,177,770

   BD Units, each consisting of one Series B Share, two Series D-B Shares and two Series D-L Shares, without par value. The BD Units represent a total of 2,161,177,770 Series B Shares, 4,322,355,540 Series D-B Shares and 4,322,355,540 Series D-L Shares.

1,417,048,500

   B Units, each consisting of five Series B Shares without par value. The B Units represent a total of 7,085,242,500 Series B Shares.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

 

x   Yes

   ¨   No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

 

¨   Yes

   x   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). N/A

 

¨   Yes

   ¨   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be file by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

 

x   Yes

   ¨   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer or a non-accelerated filer. See definition of “accelerated filer and large accelerated filer” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large Accelerated filer   x

   Accelerated filer   ¨    Non-accelerated filer   ¨

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

 

U.S. GAAP   ¨

   IFRS   x    Other   ¨

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

 

¨ Item 17

   ¨ Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

 

¨   Yes

   x   No

 

 

 


Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION     

     1   

References

     1   

Currency Translations and Estimates

     1   

Forward-Looking Information

     1   

ITEMS 1.-2.

 

NOT APPLICABLE

     2   

ITEM 3.

 

KEY INFORMATION

     2   

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

     2   

Dividends

     4   

Exchange Rate Information

     6   

Risk Factors

     7   

ITEM 4.

 

INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

     20   

The Company

     20   

Overview

     20   

Corporate Background

     20   

Ownership Structure

     23   

Significant Subsidiaries

     24   

Business Strategy

     25   

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     25   

FEMSA Comercio

     45   

Equity Investment in the Heineken Group

     53   

Other Business

     53   

Description of Property, Plant and Equipment

     53   

Insurance

     55   

Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

     56   

Regulatory Matters

     56   

ITEM 4A.

 

UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

     66   

ITEM 5.

 

OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

     66   

Overview of Events, Trends and Uncertainties

     66   

Recent Developments

     67   

Effects of Changes in Economic Conditions

     67   

Operating Leverage

     68   

Critical Accounting Judgments and Estimates

     69   

Future Impact of Recently Issued Accounting Standards not yet in Effect

     72   

Operating Results

     74   

Liquidity and Capital Resources

     82   

ITEM 6.

 

DIRECTORS, SENIOR MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEES

     91   

Directors

     91   

Senior Management

     98   

Compensation of Directors and Senior Management

     103   

EVA Stock Incentive Plan

     103   

 

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Insurance Policies

     104   

Ownership by Management

     104   

Board Practices

     104   

Employees

     106   

ITEM 7.

 

MAJOR SHAREHOLDERS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

     108   

Major Shareholders

     108   

Related-Party Transactions

     108   

Voting Trust

     108   

Interest of Management in Certain Transactions

     109   

Business Transactions between FEMSA, Coca-Cola FEMSA and The Coca-Cola Company

     110   

ITEM 8.

 

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

     112   

Consolidated Financial Statements

     112   

Dividend Policy

     112   

Legal Proceedings

     112   

Significant Changes

     113   

ITEM 9.

 

THE OFFER AND LISTING

     113   

Description of Securities

     113   

Trading Markets

     114   

Trading on the Mexican Stock Exchange

     115   

Price History

     115   

ITEM 10.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

     117   

Bylaws

     117   

Taxation

     124   

Material Contracts

     126   

Documents on Display

     133   

ITEM 11.

 

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

     134   

Interest Rate Risk

     134   

Foreign Currency Exchange Rate Risk

     138   

Equity Risk

     142   

Commodity Price Risk

     142   

ITEM 12.

 

DESCRIPTION OF SECURITIES OTHER THAN EQUITY SECURITIES

     142   

ITEM 12A.

 

DEBT SECURITIES

     142   

ITEM 12B.

 

WARRANTS AND RIGHTS

     142   

ITEM 12C.

 

OTHER SECURITIES

     142   

ITEM 12D.

 

AMERICAN DEPOSITARY SHARES

     142   

ITEM 13.-14.

 

NOT APPLICABLE

     143   

ITEM 15.

 

CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

     143   

ITEM 16A.

 

AUDIT COMMITTEE FINANCIAL EXPERT

     144   

ITEM 16B.

 

CODE OF ETHICS

     144   

 

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ITEM 16C.

 

PRINCIPAL ACCOUNTANT FEES AND SERVICES

     145   

ITEM 16D.

 

NOT APPLICABLE

     146   

ITEM 16E.

 

PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES BY THE ISSUER AND AFFILIATED PURCHASERS

     146   

ITEM 16F.

 

NOT APPLICABLE

     146   

ITEM 16G.

 

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

     146   

ITEM 16H.

 

NOT APPLICABLE

     148   

ITEM 17.

 

NOT APPLICABLE

     148   

ITEM 18.

 

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

     148   

ITEM 19.

 

EXHIBITS

     149   

 

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INTRODUCTION

This annual report contains information materially consistent with the information presented in the audited consolidated financial statements and is free of material misstatements of fact that are not material inconsistencies with the information in the audited consolidated financial statements.

References

The terms “FEMSA,” “our company,” “we,” “us” and “our,” are used in this annual report to refer to Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V. and, except where the context otherwise requires, its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis. We refer to our former subsidiary Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Holding, S.A. de C.V. (formerly FEMSA Cerveza, S.A. de C.V.) as “Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma” or “FEMSA Cerveza”, to our subsidiary Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V., as “Coca-Cola FEMSA”, to our subsidiary FEMSA Comercio, S.A. de C.V., as “FEMSA Comercio” comprising a Retail Division and a Fuel Division and to our subsidiary CB Equity LLP, as “CB Equity.”

The term “S.A.B.” stands for sociedad anónima bursátil , which is the term used in the United Mexican States, or Mexico, to denominate a publicly traded company under the Mexican Securities Market Law ( Ley del Mercado de Valores ), which we refer to as the Mexican Securities Law.

References to “U.S. dollars,” “US$,” “dollars” or “$” are to the lawful currency of the United States of America (which we refer to as the United States). References to “Mexican pesos,” “pesos” or “Ps.” are to the lawful currency of Mexico. References to “euros” or “€” are to the lawful currency of the European Economic and Monetary Union (which we refer to as the Euro Zone).

As used in this annual report, “sparkling beverages” refers to non-alcoholic carbonated beverages. “Still beverages” refers to non-alcoholic non-carbonated beverages. Non-flavored waters, whether or not carbonated, are referred to as “waters.”

Currency Translations and Estimates

This annual report contains translations of certain Mexican peso amounts into U.S. dollars at specified rates solely for the convenience of the reader. These translations should not be construed as representations that the Mexican peso amounts actually represent such U.S. dollar amounts or could be converted into U.S. dollars at the rate indicated. Unless otherwise indicated, such U.S. dollar amounts have been translated from Mexican pesos at an exchange rate of Ps. 17.1950 to US$ 1.00, the noon buying rate for Mexican pesos on December 31, 2015, as published by the U.S. Federal Reserve Board in its H.10 Weekly Release of Foreign Exchange Rates. On April 15, 2016, this exchange rate was Ps. 17.5580 to US$ 1.00. See “Item 3. Key Information—Exchange Rate Information” for information regarding exchange rates since 2011.

To the extent estimates are contained in this annual report, we believe that such estimates, which are based on internal data, are reliable. Amounts in this annual report are rounded, and the totals may therefore not precisely equal the sum of the numbers presented.

Per capita growth rates and population data have been computed based upon statistics prepared by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática of Mexico (National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, which we refer to as INEGI), the U.S. Federal Reserve Board and Banco de México (Bank of Mexico), local entities in each country and upon our estimates.

Forward-Looking Information

This annual report contains words, such as “believe,” “expect” and “anticipate” and similar expressions that identify forward-looking statements. Use of these words reflects our views about future events and financial performance. Actual results could differ materially from those projected in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors that may be beyond our control, including but not limited to effects on our company from changes in our relationship with or among our affiliated companies, movements in the prices of raw materials,

 

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competition, significant developments in Mexico and the other countries where we operate, our ability to successfully integrate mergers and acquisitions we have completed in recent years, international economic or political conditions or changes in our regulatory environment. Accordingly, we caution readers not to place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. In any event, these statements speak only as of their respective dates, and we undertake no obligation to update or revise any of them, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

ITEMS 1-2. NOT APPLICABLE

ITEM 3.       KEY INFORMATION

Selected Consolidated Financial Data

This annual report includes (under Item 18) our audited consolidated statements of financial position as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, and the related consolidated income statements, consolidated statements of comprehensive income, changes in equity and cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013. Our audited consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”). Our date of transition to IFRS was January 1, 2011.

Pursuant to IFRS, the information presented in this annual report presents financial information for 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 and 2011 in nominal terms in Mexican pesos, taking into account local inflation of any hyperinflationary economic environment and converting from local currency to Mexican pesos using the official exchange rate at the end of the period published by the local central bank of each country categorized as a hyperinflationary economic environment (for this annual report, only Venezuela). Furthermore, for our Venezuelan entities we were able to convert local currency using one of the three legal exchange rates in that country. For further information, see Notes 3.3 and 3.4 to our audited consolidated financial statements. For each non-hyperinflationary economic environment, local currency is converted to Mexican pesos using the year-end exchange rate for assets and liabilities, the historical exchange rate for equity and the average exchange rate for the income statement. See Note 3.3 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Our non-Mexican subsidiaries maintain their accounting records in the currency and in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the country where they are located. For presentation in our consolidated financial statements, we adjust these accounting records into IFRS and report in Mexican pesos under these standards.

Except when specifically indicated, information in this annual report on Form 20-F is presented as of December 31, 2015 and does not give effect to any transaction, financial or otherwise, subsequent to that date.

 

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The following table presents selected financial information of our company. This information should be read in conjunction with, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements, including the notes thereto. The selected financial information contained herein is presented on a consolidated basis, and is not necessarily indicative of our financial position or results at or for any future date or period; see Note 3 to our audited consolidated financial statements for our significant accounting policies.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015 (1)     2015 (2)-(3)     2014     2013 (4)     2012 (5)     2011 (6)  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos or millions of
U.S. dollars, except percentages and share and per share data)
 

Income Statement Data:

        

Total revenues

   $ 18,121      Ps.  311,589      Ps.  263,449      Ps.  258,097      Ps.  238,309      Ps.  201,540   

Gross Profit

     7,164        123,179        110,171        109,654        101,300        84,296   
Income before Income Taxes and Share of the Profit of Associates and Joint Ventures Accounted for Using the Equity Method      1,463        25,163        23,744        25,080        27,530        23,552   

Income taxes

     461        7,932        6,253        7,756        7,949        7,618   

Consolidated net income

     1,354        23,276        22,630        22,155        28,051        20,901   

Controlling interest net income

     1,029        17,683        16,701        15,922        20,707        15,332   
Non-controlling interest net income      325        5,593        5,929        6,233        7,344        5,569   
Basic controlling interest net income:         

Per Series B Share

     0.05        0.88        0.83        0.79        1.03        0.77   

Per Series D Share

     0.06        1.10        1.04        1.00        1.30        0.96   
Diluted controlling interest net income:         

Per Series B Share

     0.05        0.88        0.83        0.79        1.03        0.76   

Per Series D Share

     0.06        1.10        1.04        0.99        1.29        0.96   
Weighted average number of shares outstanding (in millions):         

Series B Shares

     9,246.4        9,246.4        9,246.4        9,246.4        9,246.4        9,246.4   

Series D Shares

     8,644.6        8,644.6        8,644.7        8,644.7        8,644.7        8,644.7   

Allocation of earnings:

        

Series B Shares

     46.11     46.11     46.11     46.11     46.11     46.11

Series D Shares

     53.89     53.89     53.89     53.89     53.89     53.89

Financial Position Data:

        

Total assets

   $ 23,805      Ps. 409,332      Ps. 376,173      Ps. 359,192      Ps. 295,942      Ps. 263,362   

Current liabilities

     3,800        65,346        49,319        48,869        48,516        39,325   

Long-term debt (7)

     5,000        85,969        82,935        72,921        28,640        23,819   

Other long-term liabilities

     940        16,161        13,797        14,852        8,625        8,047   

Capital stock

     195        3,348        3,347        3,346        3,346        3,345   

Total equity

     14,065        241,856        230,122        222,550        210,161        192,171   

Controlling interest

     10,556        181,524        170,473        159,392        155,259        144,222   

Non-controlling interest

     3,509        60,332        59,649        63,158        54,902        47,949   

Other Information

        

Depreciation

   $ 568      Ps. 9,761      Ps. 9,029      Ps. 8,805      Ps. 7,175      Ps. 5,694   

Capital expenditures (8)

     1,098        18,885        18,163        17,882        15,560        12,666   

Gross margin (9)

     40     40     42     42     43     42

 

(1) Translation to U.S. dollar amounts at an exchange rate of Ps. 17.19 to US$ 1.00 solely for the convenience of the reader.

 

(2) The exchange rate used to translate our operations in Venezuela as of and for the year ended on December 31, 2015 was the SIMADI rate of 198.70 bolivars to US$ 1.00 compared to the year ended on December 31, 2014 of 49.99 bolivars to US$ 1.00 and compared to the year ended on December 31, 2013 of 6.3 bolivars to US$ 1.00. See Note 3.3 of our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

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(3) Includes results of Socofar, S.A. (“Socofar” or “Grupo Socofar”), from October 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division from March 2015 and other business acquisitions. See “Item 4. Information on the Company–The Company–Corporate Background.” and Note 4 of our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(4) Includes results of Coca-Cola FEMSA Philippines, Inc., or CCFPI (formerly Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines, Inc.), from February 2013 using the equity method, Grupo Yoli, S.A. de C.V. (“Group Yoli”) from June 2013, Companhia Fluminense de Refrigerantes (“Companhia Fluminense”) from September 2013, Spaipa S.A. Indústria Brasileira de Bebidas (“Spaipa”) from November 2013 and other business acquisitions. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—The Company—Corporate Background.” Note 10 and Note 4 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(5) Includes results of Grupo Fomento Queretano, S.A.P.I. de C.V. (“Grupo Fomento Queretano”) from May 2012. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—The Company—Corporate Background.” and Note 4 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(6) Includes results of Administradora de Acciones del Noreste, S.A.P.I. de C.V. (“Grupo Tampico”) from October 2011 and from Corporación de los Ángeles, S.A. de C.V. (“Grupo CIMSA”) from December 2011. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—The Company—Corporate Background.”

 

(7) Includes long-term debt minus the current portion of long-term debt.

 

(8) Includes investments in property, plant and equipment, intangible and other assets, net of cost of long lived assets sold, and write-off.

 

(9) Gross margin is calculated by dividing gross profit by total revenues.

Dividends

We have historically paid dividends per BD Unit (including in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs) approximately equal to or greater than 1% of the market price on the date of declaration, subject to changes in our results and financial position, including due to extraordinary economic events and to the factors described in “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors” that affect our financial condition and liquidity. These factors may affect whether or not dividends are declared and the amount of such dividends. We do not expect to be subject to any contractual restrictions on our ability to pay dividends, although our subsidiaries may be subject to such restrictions. Because we are a holding company with no significant operations of our own, we will have distributable profits and cash to pay dividends only to the extent that we receive dividends from our subsidiaries. Accordingly, we cannot assure you that we will pay dividends or as to the amount of any dividends.

The following table sets forth for each year the nominal amount of dividends per share that we declared in Mexican peso and U.S. dollar amounts and their respective payment dates for the 2011 to 2015 fiscal years:

 

Date Dividend Paid

  Fiscal Year
with  Respect to which
Dividend
was Declared
    Aggregate
Amount
of Dividend
Declared
    Per Series B
Share  Dividend
    Per Series B
Share  Dividend (7)
    Per Series D
Share  Dividend
    Per Series D
Share  Dividend (7)
 
May 4, 2011 and November 2, 2011 (1)     2010      Ps.  4,600,000,000      Ps.  0.2294      $ 0.0199      Ps.  0.28675      $ 0.0249   

May 4, 2011

      Ps. 0.1147      $ 0.0099      Ps. 0.14338      $ 0.0124   

November 2, 2011

      Ps. 0.1147      $ 0.0085      Ps. 0.14338      $ 0.0106   
May 3, 2012 and November 6, 2012 (2)     2011      Ps. 6,200,000,000      Ps. 0.3092      $ 0.0231      Ps. 0.3865      $ 0.0288   

May 3, 2012

      Ps. 0.1546      $ 0.0119      Ps. 0.1932      $ 0.0149   

November 6, 2012

      Ps. 0.1546      $ 0.0119      Ps. 0.1932      $ 0.0149   
May 7, 2013 and November 7, 2013 (3)     2012      Ps. 6,684,103,000      Ps. 0.3333      $ 0.0264      Ps. 0.4166      $ 0.0330   

May 7, 2013

      Ps. 0.1666      $ 0.0138      Ps. 0.2083      $ 0.0173   

November 7, 2013

      Ps. 0.1666      $ 0.0126      Ps. 0.2083      $ 0.0158   

December 18, 2013 (4)

    2012      Ps. 6,684,103,000      Ps. 0.3333      $ 0.0257      Ps. 0.4166      $ 0.0321   
May 7, 2015 and November 5, 2015  (5)     2014      Ps. 7,350,000,000      Ps. 0.3665      $ 0.0230      Ps. 0.4581      $ 0.0287   

May 7, 2015

      Ps. 0.1833      $ 0.0120      Ps. 0.2291      $ 0.0149   

November 5, 2015

      Ps. 0.1833      $ 0.0110      Ps. 0.2291      $ 0.01318   
May 5, 2016 and November 3, 2016 (6)     2015      Ps. 8,355,000,000      Ps. 0.4167        N/A      Ps. 0.5208        N/A   

May 5, 2016

      Ps. 0.2083        N/A      Ps. 0.2604        N/A   

November 3, 2016

      Ps. 0.2083        N/A      Ps. 0.2604        N/A   

 

(1) The dividend payment for 2010 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 4, 2011, with a record date of May 3, 2011, and the second payment was payable on November 2, 2011, with a record date of November 1, 2011.
(2) The dividend payment for 2011 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 3, 2012 with a record date of May 2, 2012, and the second payment was payable on November 6, 2012 with a record date of November 5, 2012.

 

(3) The dividend payment for 2012 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 7, 2013 with a record date of May 6, 2013, and the second payment was payable on November 7, 2013 with a record date of November 6, 2013.

 

(4) The dividend payment declared in December 2013 was payable on December 18, 2013 with a record date of December 17, 2013.

 

(5) The dividend payment for 2014 was divided into two equal payments in Mexican pesos. The first payment was payable on May 7, 2015 with a record date of May 6, 2015, and the second payment was payable on November 5, 2015 with a record date of November 4, 2015. The dividend payment for 2014 was derived from the balance of the net tax profit account for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Mexican Tax Reform.”

 

(6) The dividend payment for 2015 will be divided into two equal payments. The first payment will become payable on May 5, 2016 with a record date of May 4, 2016, and the second payment will become payable on November 3, 2016 with a record date of November 1, 2016. The dividend payment for 2015 was derived from the balance of the net tax profit account for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2013. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Mexican Tax Reform.”

 

(7) Translations to U.S. dollars are based on the exchange rates on the dates the payments were made.

 

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At the annual ordinary general shareholders meeting, or AGM, the board of directors submits the financial statements of our company for the previous fiscal year, together with a report thereon by the board of directors. Once the holders of Series B Shares have approved the financial statements, they determine the allocation of our net profits for the preceding year. Mexican law requires the allocation of at least 5% of net profits to a legal reserve, which is not subsequently available for distribution, until the amount of the legal reserve equals 20% of our paid in capital stock. As of the date of this report, the legal reserve of our company is fully constituted. Thereafter, the holders of Series B Shares may determine and allocate a certain percentage of net profits to any general or special reserve, including a reserve for open-market purchases of our shares. The remainder of net profits is available for distribution in the form of dividends to our shareholders. Dividends may only be paid if net profits are sufficient to offset losses from prior fiscal years.

Our bylaws provide that dividends will be allocated among the outstanding and fully paid shares at the time a dividend is declared in such manner that each Series D-B Share and Series D-L Share receives 125% of the dividend distributed in respect of each Series B Share. Holders of Series D-B Shares and Series D-L Shares are entitled to this dividend premium in connection with all dividends paid by us other than payments in connection with the liquidation of our company.

Subject to certain exceptions contained in the deposit agreement dated May 11, 2007, among FEMSA, The Bank of New York Mellon (formerly The Bank of New York), as ADS depositary, and holders and beneficial owners from time to time of our ADSs, evidenced by American Depositary Receipts, or ADRs, any dividends distributed to holders of our ADSs will be paid to the ADS depositary in Mexican pesos and will be converted by the ADS depositary into U.S. dollars. As a result, restrictions on conversion of Mexican pesos into foreign currencies may affect the ability of holders of our ADSs to receive U.S. dollars, and exchange rate fluctuations may affect the U.S. dollar amount actually received by holders of our ADSs.

 

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Exchange Rate Information

The following table sets forth, for the periods indicated, the high, low, average and year-end noon exchange rate, expressed in Mexican pesos per US$ 1.00, as published by the U.S. Federal Reserve Board in its H.10 Weekly Release of Foreign Exchange Rates. The rates have not been restated in constant currency units and therefore represent nominal historical figures.

 

Year ended December 31,    Exchange Rate  
     High      Low      Average (1)      Year End  

2011

     14.25         11.51         12.46         13.95   

2012

     14.37         12.63         13.14         12.96   

2013

     13.43         11.98         12.86         13.10   

2014

     14.79         12.84         13.37         14.75   

2015

     17.63         14.56         15.97         17.20   

 

(1) Average month-end rates.

 

     Exchange Rate  
     High      Low      Period End  

2014:

        

First Quarter

   Ps. 13.51       Ps. 13.00       Ps. 13.06   

Second Quarter

     13.14         12.85         12.97   

Third Quarter

     13.48         12.93         13.43   

Fourth Quarter

     14.79         13.39         14.75   

2015:

        

First Quarter

   Ps. 15.58       Ps. 14.56       Ps. 15.25   

Second Quarter

     15.69         14.80         15.69   

Third Quarter

     17.10         15.67         16.90   

Fourth Quarter

     17.35         16.37         17.20   

October

     16.89         16.38         16.53   

November

     16.85         16.37         16.60   

December

     17.36         16.53         17.20   

2016:

        

January

   Ps. 18.59       Ps. 17.36       Ps. 18.21   

February

     19.19         14.75         18.07   

March

     17.94         17.21         17.21   

First Quarter

     19.19         17.21         17.21   

 

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RISK FACTORS

Risks Related to Our Company

Coca-Cola FEMSA

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business depends on its relationship with The Coca-Cola Company, and changes in this relationship may adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Substantially all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sales are derived from sales of Coca-Cola trademark beverages. Coca-Cola FEMSA produces, markets, sells and distributes Coca-Cola trademark beverages through standard bottler agreements in the territories where it operates. Coca-Cola FEMSA is required to purchase concentrate for all Coca-Cola trademark beverages from companies designated by The Coca-Cola Company, which price may be unilaterally determined from time to time by The Coca-Cola Company, in all such territories. Coca-Cola FEMSA is also required to purchase sweeteners and other raw materials only from companies authorized by The Coca-Cola Company. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Territories.” Pursuant to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements and as a shareholder, The Coca-Cola Company has the right to participate in the process for making certain decisions related to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

In addition, under Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements, it is prohibited from bottling or distributing any other beverages without The Coca-Cola Company’s authorization or consent, and may not transfer control of the bottler rights of any of its territories without prior consent from The Coca-Cola Company.

The Coca-Cola Company also makes significant contributions to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s marketing expenses, although it is not required to contribute a particular amount. Accordingly, The Coca-Cola Company may discontinue or reduce such contributions at any time.

Coca-Cola FEMSA depends on The Coca-Cola Company to continue with its bottler agreements. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements are automatically renewable for ten-year terms, subject to the right of either party to give prior notice that it does not wish to renew the applicable agreement. In addition, these agreements generally may be terminated in the case of material breach. Termination of any such bottler agreement would prevent Coca-Cola FEMSA from selling Coca-Cola trademark beverages in the affected territory. The foregoing and any other adverse changes in the relationship with The Coca-Cola Company would have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The Coca-Cola Company has substantial influence on the conduct of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, which may result in Coca-Cola FEMSA taking actions contrary to the interests of its shareholders other than The Coca-Cola Company.

The Coca-Cola Company has substantial influence on the conduct of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business. As of April 8, 2016, The Coca-Cola Company indirectly owned 28.1% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s outstanding capital stock, representing 37% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s shares with full voting rights. The Coca-Cola Company is entitled to appoint five of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s maximum of 21 directors and the vote of at least two of them is required to approve certain actions by Coca-Cola FEMSA’s board of directors. As of April 8, 2016, we indirectly owned 47.9% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s outstanding capital stock, representing 63% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock with full voting rights. We are entitled to appoint 13 of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s maximum of 21 directors and all of its executive officers. We and The Coca-Cola Company together, or only we in certain circumstances, have the power to determine the outcome of all actions requiring the approval of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s board of directors, and we and The Coca-Cola Company together, or only we in certain circumstances, have the power to determine the outcome of all actions requiring the approval of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s shareholders. The interests of The Coca-Cola Company may be different from the interests of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s other shareholders or its creditors, which may result in Coca-Cola FEMSA taking actions contrary to the interests of such other shareholders or its creditors.

 

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Changes in consumer preferences and public concern about health related issues could reduce demand for some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products.

The non-alcoholic beverage industry is evolving mainly as a result of changes in consumer preferences and regulatory actions. There have been different plans and actions adopted in recent years by governmental authorities in some of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates including an increase in taxes or the imposition of new taxes on the sale of beverages containing certain sweeteners, and other regulatory measures, such as restrictions on advertising for some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products. Moreover, researchers, health advocates and dietary guidelines are encouraging consumers to reduce their consumption of certain types of beverages sweetened with sugar and High Fructose Corn Syrup, or HFCS. In addition, concerns over the environmental impact of plastic may reduce the consumption of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products sold in plastic bottles or result in additional taxes that would adversely affect consumer demand. Increasing public concern about these issues, new or increased taxes, other regulatory measures or any failure of Coca-Cola FEMSA to meet consumers’ preferences, could reduce demand for some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products which would adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The reputation of Coca-Cola trademarks and trademark infringement could adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

Substantially all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sales are derived from sales of Coca-Cola trademark beverages owned by The Coca-Cola Company. Maintenance of the reputation and intellectual property rights of these trademarks is essential to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s ability to attract and retain retailers and consumers and is essential for its success. Failure to maintain the reputation of Coca-Cola trademarks and/or to effectively protect these trademarks could have a material adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Competition could adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The beverage industry in the territories where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates is highly competitive. Coca-Cola FEMSA faces competition from other bottlers of sparkling beverages, such as Pepsi trademark products and other bottlers and distributors of local beverage brands, and from producers of low-cost beverages or “B brands.” Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes in beverage categories other than sparkling beverages, such as water, juice-based beverages, teas, sport drinks and value-added dairy products. Coca-Cola FEMSA expects that it will continue to face strong competition in its beverage categories in all of its territories and anticipates that existing or new competitors may broaden their product lines and extend their geographic scope.

Although competitive conditions are different in each of its territories, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes principally in terms of price, packaging, effective promotional activities, access to retail outlets and sufficient shelf space, customer service, product innovation and product alternatives and the ability to identify and satisfy consumer preferences. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Competition.” Lower pricing and activities by competitors and changes in consumer preferences may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Water shortages or any failure to maintain existing concessions could adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Water is an essential component of all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products. Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water from various sources in its territories, including springs, wells, rivers and municipal and state water companies pursuant to either concessions granted by governments in its various territories (including governments at the federal, state or municipal level) or pursuant to contracts.

Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains the vast majority of the water used in its production from municipal utility companies and pursuant to concessions to use wells, which are generally granted based on studies of the existing and projected groundwater supply. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s existing water concessions or contracts to obtain water may be

 

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terminated by governmental authorities under certain circumstances and their renewal depends on several factors, including having paid fees in full, having complied with applicable obligations and receiving approval for renewal from local and/or federal water authorities. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Water Supply.” In some of its other territories, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s existing water supply may not be sufficient to meet its future production needs, and the available water supply may be adversely affected by shortages or changes in governmental regulations and environmental changes.

Water supply in the Sao Paulo region in Brazil has been reduced in recent years by low rainfall, which has affected the main water reservoir that serves the greater Sao Paulo area (Cantareira). Although Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Jundiai plant does not obtain water from this water reservoir, water shortages or changes in governmental regulations aimed at rationalizing water in such region could affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s water supply in its Jundiai plant. We cannot assure you that water will be available in sufficient quantities to meet Coca-Cola FEMSA’s future production needs or will prove sufficient to meet its water supply needs. Continued water scarcity in the regions where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates may adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Increases in the prices of raw materials would increase Coca-Cola FEMSA’s cost of goods sold and may adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In addition to water, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most significant raw materials are (i) concentrate, which is acquired from affiliates of The Coca-Cola Company, (ii) sweeteners and (iii) packaging materials.

Prices for Coca-Cola trademark beverages concentrate are determined by The Coca-Cola Company as a percentage of the weighted average retail price in local currency, net of applicable taxes. The Coca-Cola Company has the right to unilaterally change concentrate prices or change the manner in which such prices are calculated. In the past, The Coca-Cola Company has increased concentrate prices for Coca-Cola trademark beverages in some of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Coca-Cola FEMSA may not be successful in negotiating or implementing measures to mitigate the negative effect this may have in the pricing of its products or its results.

The prices for other Coca-Cola FEMSA’s raw materials are driven by market prices and local availability, the imposition of import duties and restrictions and fluctuations in exchange rates. Coca-Cola FEMSA is also required to meet all of its supply needs (including sweeteners and packaging materials) from suppliers approved by The Coca-Cola Company, which may limit the number of suppliers available to it. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sales prices are denominated in the local currency in each country where it operates, while the prices of certain materials, including those used in the bottling of its products, mainly resin, preforms to make plastic bottles, finished plastic bottles, aluminum cans, HFCS and certain sweeteners, are paid in or determined with reference to the U.S. dollar, and therefore may increase if the U.S. dollar appreciates against the applicable local currency. We cannot anticipate whether the U.S. dollar will appreciate or depreciate with respect to such local currencies in the future. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Raw Materials.”

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most significant packaging raw material costs arise from the purchase of resin and plastic preforms to make plastic bottles and from the purchase of finished plastic bottles, the prices of which are related to crude oil prices and global resin supply. The average prices that Coca-Cola FEMSA paid for resin and plastic preforms in U.S. dollars in 2015 decreased 24% as compared to 2014 in all Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories; however, given that high currency volatility has affected and continues to affect most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, the average prices for resin and plastic preforms in local currencies were higher in 2015 in Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. In 2015, average sweetener prices were lower in Guatemala, and were higher in the rest of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, in each case as compared to 2014. From 2010 through 2015, international sugar prices were volatile due to various factors, including shifting demand, availability and climate issues affecting production and distribution. In all of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, other than Brazil, sugar prices are subject to local regulations and other barriers to market entry that cause Coca-Cola FEMSA to purchase for sugar above international market prices. See “Item 4. Information on the Company— Coca-Cola FEMSA —Raw Materials.” We cannot assure you that Coca-Cola FEMSA’s raw material prices will not further increase in the future. Increases in the prices of raw materials would increase Coca-Cola FEMSA’s cost of goods sold and adversely affect its business, financial conditions, results of operations and prospects.

 

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Taxes could adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates may adopt new tax laws or modify existing tax laws to increase taxes applicable to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business or products. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products are subject to certain taxes in many of the countries where it operates, which impose taxes on sparkling beverages. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Taxation of Sparkling Beverages.” The imposition of new taxes, increases in existing taxes or changes in the interpretation of tax laws and regulation by tax authorities may have a material adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Tax legislation in some of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates has recently been subject to major changes. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Mexican Tax Reform ” and “ Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Other Recent Tax Reforms . We cannot assure you that these reforms or other reforms adopted by governments in the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates will not have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Regulatory developments may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Coca-Cola FEMSA is subject to several laws and regulations in each of the territories where it operates. The principal areas in which Coca-Cola FEMSA is subject to laws and regulations are water, environment, labor, taxation, health and antitrust. Laws and regulations can also affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s ability to set prices for its products. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters.” Changes in existing laws and regulations, the adoption of new laws or regulations or a stricter interpretation or enforcement thereof in the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates may increase its operating and compliance costs or impose restrictions on its operations which, in turn, may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In particular, environmental standards are becoming more stringent in several of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. There is no assurance that Coca-Cola FEMSA will be able to comply with changes in environmental laws and regulations within the timelines established by the relevant regulatory authorities. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Environmental Matters.”

Voluntary price restraints or statutory price controls have been imposed historically in several of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Currently, there are no price controls on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in any of the territories where it has operations, except for those in Argentina, where authorities directly supervise five of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products sold through supermarkets as a measure to control inflation, and Venezuela, where price controls have been imposed on certain of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, including bottled water, and a limit has been imposed on profits earned on the sale of goods, including Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, in an effort to seek price stability of, and equal access to, goods and services. If Coca-Cola FEMSA exceeds such limit on profits, it may be forced to reduce the prices of its products in Venezuela, which would in turn adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, consumer protection laws in Venezuela are subject to continuing review and changes, and any such changes may have an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA. We cannot assure you that existing or future laws and regulations in the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates relating to goods and services (in particular, laws and regulations imposing statutory price controls) will not affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products or that Coca-Cola FEMSA will not need to implement voluntary price restraints, which could have a negative effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Regulatory Matters—Price Controls.”

Unfavorable results of legal proceedings could have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations have from time to time been and may continue to be subject to investigations and proceedings by antitrust authorities, and litigation relating to alleged anticompetitive practices. Coca-Cola FEMSA also has been subject to investigations and proceedings on tax, consumer protection, environmental and labor matters. We cannot assure you that these investigations and proceedings will not have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

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Weather conditions may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Lower temperatures, higher rainfall and other adverse weather conditions such as typhoons and hurricanes may negatively impact consumer patterns, which may result in reduced sales of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverage offerings. Additionally, such adverse weather conditions may affect plant installed capacity, road infrastructure and points of sale in the territories where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates and limit Coca-Cola FEMSA’s ability to produce, sell and distribute its products, thus affecting its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Coca-Cola FEMSA may not be able to successfully integrate its acquisitions and achieve the expected operational efficiencies and/or synergies.

Coca-Cola FEMSA has and may continue to acquire bottling operations and other businesses. Key elements to achieving the benefits and expected synergies of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s acquisitions and/or mergers are the integration of acquired or merged businesses’ operations into its own in a timely and effective manner and the retention of qualified and experienced key personnel. Coca-Cola FEMSA may incur unforeseen liabilities in connection with acquiring, taking control of, or managing bottling operations and other businesses and may encounter difficulties and unforeseen or additional costs in restructuring and integrating them into its operating structure. We cannot assure you that these efforts will be successful or completed as expected by Coca-Cola FEMSA, and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected if it is unable to do so.

Political and social events in the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates and changes in governmental policies may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

In recent years, some of the governments in the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates have implemented and may continue to implement significant changes in laws, public policy and/or regulations that could affect the political and social conditions in these countries. Any such changes may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. We cannot assure you that political or social developments in any of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, such as the election of new administrations, political disagreements, civil disturbances and the rise in violence and perception of violence, over which Coca-Cola FEMSA has no control, will not have a corresponding adverse effect on the local or global markets or on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

FEMSA Comercio

Competition from other retailers in Mexico could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

The Mexican retail sector is highly competitive. FEMSA participates in the retail sector primarily through FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division. Its OXXO stores face competition from small-format stores like 7-Eleven, Extra, Super City, Círculo K stores and other numerous chains of retailers across Mexico, from other regional small-format retailers to small informal neighborhood stores. In particular, small informal neighborhood stores can sometimes avoid regulatory oversight and taxation, enabling them to sell certain products at prices below average market prices. In addition, these small informal neighborhood stores could improve their technological capabilities so as to enable credit card transactions and electronic payment of utility bills, which would diminish one of FEMSA Comercio –Retail Division’s competitive advantages. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division may face additional competition from new market participants. Increased competition may limit the number of new store locations available and require FEMSA Comercio –Retail Division to modify its product offering or pricing structure. As a consequence, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may be adversely affected by competition in the future.

 

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Sales of OXXO small-format stores may be adversely affected by changes in economic conditions in Mexico.

Small-format stores often sell certain products at a premium. The small-format store market is thus highly sensitive to economic conditions, since an economic slowdown is often accompanied by a decline in consumer purchasing power, which in turn results in a decline in the overall consumption of FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s main product categories. During periods of economic slowdown, OXXO stores may experience a decline in traffic per store and average ticket per customer, which may result in a decline in FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s overall performance.

Regulatory changes may adversely affect FEMSA Comercio –Retail Division’s business.

In Mexico, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division is subject to regulation in areas such as labor, taxation, zoning, operations and related local permits and health and safety regulations. Changes in existing laws and regulations, the adoption of new laws or regulations, or a stricter interpretation or enforcement thereof in the countries where FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division operates may increase its operating and compliance costs or impose restrictions on its operations which, in turn, may adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In addition, changes in current laws and regulations may negatively impact customer traffic, revenues, operational costs and commercial practices, which may have an adverse effect on FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division may not be able to maintain its historic growth rate.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division increased the number of OXXO stores at a compound annual growth rate of 10.1% from 2011 to 2015. The growth in the number of OXXO stores has driven growth in total revenue and results at FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division over the same period. As the overall number of stores increases, growth in the number of OXXO stores is likely to slow. In addition, as small-format store penetration in Mexico grows, the number of viable new store locations may decrease, and new store locations may be less favorable in terms of same-store sales, average ticket and store traffic. As a result, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s future results and financial condition may not be consistent with prior periods and may be characterized by lower growth rates in terms of total revenue and results of operations. In Colombia, OXXO stores may not be able to maintain historic growth rates similar to those in Mexico. We cannot assure you that FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s future retail stores will generate revenues and cash flow comparable with those generated by its existing retail stores.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business depends heavily on information technology and a failure, interruption, or breach of its IT systems could adversely affect it.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business relies heavily on advanced information technology (which we refer to as IT) systems to effectively manage its data, communications, connectivity, and other business processes. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division invests aggressively in IT to maximize its value generation potential. Given the rapid speed at which such division adds new services and products to its commercial offerings, the development of IT systems, hardware and software needs to keep pace with the growth of the business. If these systems become obsolete or if planning for future IT investments is inadequate, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business could be adversely affected.

Although FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division constantly improves its IT systems and protects them with advanced security measures, they may still be subject to defects, interruptions, or security breaches such as viruses or data theft. Such a defect, interruption, or breach could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

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FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business may be adversely affected by an increase in the price of electricity.

The performance of FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s stores would be adversely affected by increases in the price of utilities on which the stores depend, such as electricity. In recent years the price of electricity in Mexico has remained stable, and particularly the price was reduced last year, although it could potentially increase as a result of inflation, shortages, interruptions in supply, or other reasons, and such an increase could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s expansion strategy and entry into new markets and retail formats may lead to decreased profit margins.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has recently entered into new markets through the acquisition of other small-format retail businesses such as drugstores and quick-service restaurants. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division continued with this strategy in 2015 and may continue with it in the future. These new businesses are currently less profitable than OXXO, and might therefore marginally dilute FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s margins in the short to medium term.

Taxes could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio’s business.

The imposition of new taxes or increases in existing taxes, or changes in the interpretation of tax laws and regulations by tax authorities, may have a material adverse effect on FEMSA Comercio’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Energy regulatory changes may impact fuel prices and therefore adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business.

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division sells mainly gasoline and diesel through owned or leased retail service stations. Currently, the prices of these products are regulated in Mexico by the Comisión Reguladora de Energía (Energy Regulatory Commission), a government agency. Changes in how these prices may be determined or controlled may adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. In the future and in accordance with what is envisioned by the current regulations in Mexico, fuel prices will follow the dynamics of the international fuel market, which may also adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Uncertainty in Mexican legislation and regulation of the energy sector could affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business.

Mexican legislation and regulation of the energy sector in general, and of fuel distribution in particular, is in transition or has not been fully implemented (through secondary legislation and rules) given the recent passing of energy reforms. The authorities have certain discretion to implement the energy reform and, in the future, new rules, additional requirements or steps or interpretations could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business could be affected by new safety and environmental regulations enforced by government, global environmental regulations and new energy technologies.

Federal, state and municipal laws and regulations for the installation of new service stations are becoming or may become more stringent. Compliance with these laws and regulations is often difficult and costly. Global trends to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels through incentives and taxes could push sales of these fuels at service stations to slow or decrease in the future and automotive technologies, including efficiency gains in traditional fuel vehicles and increased popularity of alternative fuel vehicles, such as electric and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles, have caused a significant reduction in fuel consumption. Other new technologies could further reduce the sale of traditional fuels, all of which could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s results or financial position.

 

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Competition from new players in Mexico could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business.

The opening of the Mexican fuel distribution market is expected to alter the competitive dynamics of the industry. The Mexican fuel distribution and retail market is expected to enter into a consolidation process as large companies and international competitors enter the market or gain market share at the expense of small, independently owned and operated service stations. Consolidation may occur rapidly and materially alter the market dynamics in Mexico which may affect our ability to take advantage of existing opportunities. Such changes could adversely affect FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business, financial condition, and results of operations and prospects. We cannot assure you that any further market consolidation will not be detrimental to FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s market position or competitiveness or will not materially and adversely affect its business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Risks Related to Mexico and the Other Countries Where We Operate

Adverse economic conditions in Mexico may adversely affect our financial position and results.

We are a Mexican corporation and our Mexican operations are our single most important geographic territory. For the year ended December 31, 2015, 70% of our consolidated total revenues were attributable to Mexico. During 2012, 2013 and 2014 the Mexican gross domestic product, or GDP, increased by approximately 4%, 1.4% and 2.1%, respectively, and in 2015 it increased by approximately 2.5% on an annualized basis compared to 2014, due to stronger performance in the services and primary sectors, which were partially offset by lower volumes and cheaper prices in the oil and gas industries. We cannot assure you that such conditions will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects going forward. The Mexican economy continues to be heavily influenced by the U.S. economy, and therefore, deterioration in economic conditions in, or delays in recovery of, the U.S. economy may hinder any recovery in Mexico. In the past, Mexico has experienced both prolonged periods of weak economic conditions and deteriorations in economic conditions that have had a negative impact on our results.

Our business may be significantly affected by the general condition of the Mexican economy, or by the rate of inflation in Mexico, interest rates in Mexico and exchange rates for, or exchange controls affecting, the Mexican peso. Decreases in the growth rate of the Mexican economy, periods of negative growth and/or increases in inflation or interest rates may result in lower demand for our products, lower real pricing of our products or a shift to lower margin products. Because a large percentage of our costs and expenses are fixed we may not be able to reduce costs and expenses upon the occurrence of any of these events and our profit margins may suffer as a result.

In addition, an increase in interest rates in Mexico would increase the cost of our debt and would cause an adverse effect on our financial position and results. Mexican peso-denominated debt (including currency hedges) constituted 39% of our total debt as of December 31, 2015.

Depreciation of the Mexican peso and of our other local currencies relative to the U.S. dollar could adversely affect our financial position and results.

Depreciation of the Mexican peso and of our other local currencies relative to the U.S. dollar increases the cost of a portion of the raw materials we acquire, the price of which is paid in or determined with reference to U.S. dollars, and of our debt obligations denominated in U.S. dollars, and thereby negatively affects our financial position and results. A severe devaluation or depreciation of the Mexican peso may result in disruption of the international foreign exchange markets and may limit our ability to transfer or to convert Mexican pesos into U.S. dollars and other currencies for the purpose of making timely payments of interest and principal on our U.S. dollar-denominated debt or obligations in other currencies. The Mexican peso is a free-floating currency and as such, it experiences exchange rate fluctuations relative to the U.S. dollar over time. During 2014, 2013 and 2012, the Mexican peso experienced fluctuations relative to the U.S. dollar consisting of 7.1% of recovery, 1% of depreciation and 12.6% of depreciation respectively, compared to the years of 2013, 2012 and 2011. During 2015, the Mexican peso depreciated relative to the U.S. dollar by approximately 16.6% compared to 2014. Through April 15, 2016, the Mexican peso has depreciated 2.1% since December 31, 2015.

 

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While the Mexican government does not currently restrict, and since 1982 has not restricted, the right or ability of Mexican or foreign persons or entities to convert Mexican pesos into U.S. dollars or to transfer other currencies out of Mexico, the Mexican government could impose restrictive exchange rate policies in the future, as it has done in the past. Currency fluctuations may have an adverse effect on our financial position, results and cash flows in future periods.

When the financial markets are volatile, as they have been in recent periods, our results may be substantially affected by variations in exchange rates and commodity prices, and to a lesser degree, interest rates. These effects include foreign exchange gain and loss on assets and liabilities denominated in U.S. dollars, fair value gain and loss on derivative financial instruments, commodities prices and changes in interest income and interest expense. These effects can be much more volatile than our operating performance and our operating cash flows.

Political events in Mexico could adversely affect our operations.

Mexican political events may significantly affect our operations. Presidential elections in Mexico occur every six years, with the most recent one occurring in July 2012. Enrique Peña Nieto, a member of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional, was elected as the president of Mexico and took office on December 1, 2012. In addition, the Mexican Congress has approved a number of structural reforms intended to modernize certain sectors of and foster growth in the Mexican economy, and is continuing to approve further reforms. President Peña Nieto continues to face significant challenges as the structural reforms approved by the Mexican Congress could have an effect on the Mexican economy. Furthermore, no single party has a majority in the Senate or the Cámara de Diputados (House of Representatives), and the absence of a clear majority by a single party could result in government gridlock and political uncertainty. We cannot provide any assurances that political developments in Mexico, over which we have no control, will not have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Security risks in Mexico could increase, and this could adversely affect our results.

The presence of violence among drug cartels, and between these and the Mexican law enforcement and armed forces, pose a risk to our business. Organized criminal activity and related violent incidents have decreased in 2015 compared to 2014 and 2013, but remain prevalent in some parts of Mexico. These incidents are relatively concentrated along the northern Mexican border, as well as in certain other Mexican states such as Sinaloa, Morelos, Michoacan and Guerrero. The north of Mexico is an important region for our retail operations, and an increase in crime rates could negatively affect our sales and customer traffic, increase our security expenses, and result in higher turnover of personnel or damage to the perception of our brands. This situation could worsen and adversely impact our business and financial results because consumer habits and patterns adjust to the increased perceived and real security risks, as people refrain from going out as much and gradually shift some on-premise consumption to off-premise consumption of food and beverages on certain social occasions.

Depreciation of local currencies in other Latin American countries where we operate may adversely affect our financial position.

The devaluation of the local currencies against the U.S. dollar in our non-Mexican territories can increase our operating costs in these countries, and depreciation of the local currencies against the Mexican peso can negatively affect our results for these countries. In recent years, the value of the currency in the countries where we operate has been relatively stable relative to the Mexican peso, except in Venezuela. During 2015, in addition to the Venezuelan currency, the currencies of Brazil and Argentina also depreciated against the Mexican peso. Future currency devaluation or the imposition of exchange controls in any of these countries, or in Mexico, would have an adverse effect on our financial position and results.

We have operated under exchange controls in Venezuela since 2003, which limits our ability to remit dividends abroad or make payments other than in local currency and that may increase the real price paid for raw materials and services purchased in local currency. Prior to 2014, we had historically used the official exchange rate to translate our Venezuelan operations. However, since the beginning of 2014, the Venezuelan government has announced a series of changes to the Venezuelan exchange control regime.

 

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In January 2014, the Venezuelan government announced an exchange rate determined by the state-run system known as the Sistema Complementario de Administración de Divisas , or SICAD. In March 2014, the Venezuelan government announced a new law that authorized an alternative method of exchanging Venezuelan bolivars to U.S. dollars known as SICAD II. In February 2015, the Venezuelan government announced that it was replacing SICAD II with a new market-based exchange rate determined by the system known as the Sistema Marginal de Divisas , or SIMADI. In February 2016, the Venezuelan government announced a 37% devaluation of the official exchange rate and changed the existing three-tier exchange rate system into a dual system. The official exchange rate (6.30 bolivars per US$ 1.00 as of December 31, 2015) and the SICAD exchange rate (13.50 bolivars per US$ 1.00 as of December 31, 2015) were merged into a single official exchange rate of 10.00 bolivars per U.S. dollar. The decision was part of a package of economic policies intended to mitigate the economic crisis of the member countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

In March 2016, the Venezuelan government announced that it was replacing the SIMADI exchange rate with a new market-based exchange rate known as Divisas Complementarias , or DICOM, and the official exchange rate with a preferential exchange rate denominated Divisa Protegida , or DIPRO. The DIPRO exchange rate is determined by the Venezuelan government and may be used to settle imports of a list of goods and raw materials, which has not been published as of the date of this annual report. The DICOM exchange rate is determined based on supply and demand of U.S. dollars. As of April 15, 2016, the DIPRO and DICOM exchange rates were 10 bolivars and 339.45 bolivars per US$ 1.00, respectively.

We translated our results of operations in Venezuela for the full year ended December 31, 2015 into our reporting currency, the Mexican peso, using the SIMADI exchange rate of 198.70 bolivars to US$ 1.00, which was the exchange rate in effect as of such date. As a result, in 2015, we recognized a reduction in equity of Ps. 2,687 million. Coca-Cola FEMSA will closely monitor any further developments that may affect the exchange rates to translate the financial statements of its Venezuelan subsidiary in the future.

Based upon our specific facts and circumstances, we anticipate using the DICOM exchange rate to translate our future results of operations in Venezuela into our reporting currency, the Mexican peso. This will further adversely affect our comprehensive income and financial position. The Venezuelan government may announce further changes to the exchange rate system in the future. To the extent a higher exchange rate is applied to our investment in Venezuela in future periods as a result of changes to existing regulations, subsequently adopted regulations or otherwise, our comprehensive income in Venezuela and financial condition could be further adversely affected. More generally, future currency devaluations or the imposition of exchange controls in any of the countries where we operate may potentially increase our operating costs, which could have an adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations and comprehensive income.

Risks Related to Our Holding of Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. Shares

FEMSA does not control Heineken N.V.’s and Heineken Holding N.V.’s decisions.

On April 30, 2010, FEMSA announced the closing of the transaction pursuant to which FEMSA agreed to exchange 100% of its beer operations for a 20% economic interest in Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. (which, together with their respective subsidiaries, we refer to as Heineken or the Heineken Group). As a consequence of this transaction, which we refer to as the Heineken transaction, FEMSA now participates in the Heineken Holding N.V. Board of Directors, which we refer to as the Heineken Holding Board, and in the Heineken N.V. Supervisory Board, which we refer to as the Heineken Supervisory Board. However, FEMSA is not a majority or controlling shareholder of Heineken N.V. or Heineken Holding N.V., nor does it control the decisions of the Heineken Holding Board or the Heineken Supervisory Board. Therefore, the decisions made by the majority or controlling shareholders of Heineken N.V. or Heineken Holding N.V. or the Heineken Holding Board or the Heineken Supervisory Board may not be consistent with or may not consider the interests of FEMSA’s shareholders or may be adverse to the interests of FEMSA’s shareholders. Additionally, FEMSA has agreed not to disclose non-public information and decisions taken by Heineken.

 

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Heineken operates in a large number of countries.

Heineken is a global brewer and distributor of beer in a large number of countries. Because of FEMSA’s investment in Heineken, FEMSA shareholders are indirectly exposed to the political, economic and social circumstances affecting the markets in which Heineken is present, which may have an adverse effect on the value of FEMSA’s interest in Heineken, and, consequently, the value of FEMSA shares.

The Mexican peso may strengthen compared to the Euro.

In the event of a depreciation of the euro against the Mexican peso, the fair value of FEMSA’s investment in Heineken’s shares will be adversely affected. Furthermore, the cash flow that is expected to be received in the form of dividends from Heineken will be in euros, and therefore, in the event of a depreciation of the euro against the Mexican peso, the amount of expected cash flow will be adversely affected.

Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. are publicly listed companies.

Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. are listed companies whose stock trades publicly and is subject to market fluctuation. A reduction in the price of Heineken N.V. or Heineken Holding N.V. shares would result in a reduction in the economic value of FEMSA’s participation in Heineken.

Risks Related to Our Principal Shareholders and Capital Structure

A majority of our voting shares are held by a voting trust, which effectively controls the management of our company, and the interests of which may differ from those of other shareholders.

As of March 8, 2016, a voting trust, of which the participants are members of seven families, owned 38.69% of our capital stock and 74.86% of our capital stock with full voting rights, consisting of Series B Shares. Consequently, the voting trust has the power to elect a majority of the members of our board of directors and to play a significant or controlling role in the outcome of substantially all matters to be decided by our board of directors or our shareholders. The interests of the voting trust may differ from those of our other shareholders. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related-Party Transactions” and “Item 10. Additional Information—Bylaws—Voting Rights and Certain Minority Rights.”

Holders of Series D-B and D-L Shares have limited voting rights.

Holders of Series D-B and D-L Shares have limited voting rights and are only entitled to vote on specific matters, such as certain changes in the form of our corporate organization, dissolution, or liquidation, a merger with a company with a distinct corporate purpose, a merger in which we are not the surviving entity, a change of our jurisdiction of incorporation, the cancellation of the registration of the Series D-B and D-L Shares and any other matters that expressly require approval from such holders under the Mexican Securities Law. As a result of these limited voting rights, Series D-B and D-L holders will not be able to influence our business or operations. See “Item 7. Major Shareholders and Related-Party Transactions—Major Shareholders” and “Item 10. Additional Information—Bylaws—Voting Rights and Certain Minority Rights.”

Holders of ADSs may not be able to vote at our shareholder meetings.

Our shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE, in the form of ADSs. We cannot assure you that holders of our shares in the form of ADSs will receive notice of shareholders’ meetings from our ADS depositary in sufficient time to enable such holders to return voting instructions to the ADS depositary in a timely manner. In the event that instructions are not received with respect to any shares underlying ADSs, the ADS depositary will, subject to certain limitations, grant a proxy to a person designated by us in respect of these shares. In the event that this proxy is not granted, the ADS depositary will vote these shares in the same manner as the majority of the shares of each class for which voting instructions are received.

 

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Holders of BD Units in the United States and holders of ADSs may not be able to participate in any future preemptive rights offering and as a result may be subject to dilution of their equity interests.

Under applicable Mexican law, if we issue new shares for cash as a part of a capital increase, other than in connection with a public offering of newly issued shares or treasury stock, we are generally required to grant our shareholders the right to purchase a sufficient number of shares to maintain their existing ownership percentage. Rights to purchase shares in these circumstances are known as preemptive rights. By law, we may not allow holders of our shares or ADSs who are located in the United States to exercise any preemptive rights in any future capital increases unless (1) we file a registration statement with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the SEC, with respect to that future issuance of shares or (2) the offering qualifies for an exemption from the registration requirements of the U.S. Securities Act of 1933. At the time of any future capital increase, we will evaluate the costs and potential liabilities associated with filing a registration statement with the SEC, as well as the benefits of preemptive rights to holders of our shares in the form of ADSs in the United States and any other factors that we consider important in determining whether to file a registration statement.

We may decide not to file a registration statement with the SEC to allow holders of our shares or ADSs who are located in the United States to participate in a preemptive rights offering. In addition, under current Mexican law, the sale by the ADS depositary of preemptive rights and the distribution of the proceeds from such sales to the holders of our shares in the form of ADSs is not possible. As a result, the equity interest of holders of our shares in the form of ADSs would be diluted proportionately. See “Item 10. Additional Information—Bylaws—Preemptive Rights.”

The protections afforded to minority shareholders in Mexico are different from those afforded to minority shareholders in the United States.

Under Mexican law, the protections afforded to minority shareholders are different from, and may be less than, those afforded to minority shareholders in the United States. Mexican laws do not provide a remedy to shareholders relating to violations of fiduciary duties. There is no procedure for class actions as such actions are conducted in the United States and there are different procedural requirements for bringing shareholder lawsuits against directors for the benefit of companies. Therefore, it may be more difficult for minority shareholders to enforce their rights against us, our directors or our controlling shareholders than it would be for minority shareholders of a United States company.

Investors may experience difficulties in enforcing civil liabilities against us or our directors, officers and controlling persons.

FEMSA is organized under the laws of Mexico, and most of our directors, officers and controlling persons reside outside the United States. In addition, nearly all or a substantial portion of our assets and the assets of our subsidiaries are located outside the United States. As a result, it may be difficult for investors to effect service of process within the United States on such persons or to enforce judgments against them, including any action based on civil liabilities under the U.S. federal securities laws. There is doubt as to the enforceability against such persons in Mexico, whether in original actions or in actions to enforce judgments of U.S. courts, of liabilities based solely on the U.S. federal securities laws.

Developments in other countries may adversely affect the market for our securities.

The market value of securities of Mexican companies is, to varying degrees, influenced by economic and securities market conditions in other emerging market countries. Although economic conditions are different in each country, investors’ reaction to developments in one country can have effects on the securities of issuers in other countries, including Mexico. We cannot assure you that events elsewhere, especially in emerging markets, will not adversely affect the market value of our securities.

 

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The failure or inability of our subsidiaries to pay dividends or other distributions to us may adversely affect us and our ability to pay dividends to holders of ADSs.

We are a holding company. Accordingly, our cash flows are principally derived from dividends, interest and other distributions made to us by our subsidiaries. Currently, our subsidiaries do not have contractual obligations that require them to pay dividends to us. In addition, debt and other contractual obligations of our subsidiaries may in the future impose restrictions on our subsidiaries’ ability to make dividend or other payments to us, which in turn may adversely affect our ability to pay dividends to shareholders and meet our debt and other obligations. As of March 31, 2016, we had no restrictions on our ability to pay dividends. Further, our non-controlling shareholder position in Heineken means that we will be unable to require payment of dividends with respect to the Heineken shares.

 

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ITEM 4. INFORMATION ON THE COMPANY

The Company

Overview

We are a Mexican company headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico, and our origin dates back to 1890. Our company was incorporated on May 30, 1936 and has a duration of 99 years. The duration can be extended indefinitely by resolution of our shareholders. Our legal name is Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V., and in commercial and business contexts we frequently refer to ourselves as FEMSA. Our principal headquarters are located at General Anaya No. 601 Pte., Colonia Bella Vista, Monterrey, Nuevo León 64410, Mexico. Our telephone number at this location is (+52-81) 8328-6000. Our website is www.femsa.com. We are organized as a sociedad anónima bursátil de capital variable under the laws of Mexico.

We conduct our operations through the following principal holding companies:

 

   

Coca-Cola FEMSA, which produces, distributes and sells beverages and is the largest franchise bottler of Coca-Cola products in the world;

 

   

FEMSA Comercio, comprising a Retail Division operating various small-format chain stores, including OXXO, the largest and fastest-growing chain in Latin America, and a Fuel Division operating the OXXO GAS chain of retail service stations for fuels, motor oils and other car care products. As of December 31, 2015, the Fuel Division is treated as a separate business segment; and

 

   

CB Equity LLP, which holds our equity investment in Heineken, one of the world’s leading brewers, with operations in over 70 countries.

Corporate Background

FEMSA traces its origins to the establishment of Mexico’s first brewery, Cervecería Cuauhtémoc, S.A., which was founded in 1890 by four Monterrey businessmen: Francisco G. Sada, José A. Muguerza, Isaac Garza and José M. Schneider. Descendants of certain of the founders of Cervecería Cuauhtémoc, S.A. are participants of the voting trust that controls the management of our company.

The strategic integration of the company dates back to 1936 when its packaging operations were established to supply crown caps to the brewery. During this period, these operations were part of what was known as the Monterrey Group, which also included interests in banking and steel businesses and other packaging operations.

In 1974, the Monterrey Group was split between two branches of the descendants of the founding families of Cervecería Cuauhtémoc, S.A. The steel and other packaging operations formed the basis for the creation of Corporación Siderúrgica, S.A. (now Alfa, S.A.B. de C.V.), controlled by the Garza Sada family, and the beverage and banking operations were consolidated under the Valores Industriales, S.A. de C.V. (the corporate predecessor of FEMSA) corporate umbrella controlled by the Garza Lagüera family. FEMSA’s shares were first listed on what is now the Bolsa Mexicana de Valores, S.A.B. de C.V. (which we refer to as the Mexican Stock Exchange) on September 19, 1978. Between the decades of 1970 and 1980, FEMSA diversified its operations through acquisitions in the soft drinks and mineral water industries, the establishment of the first stores under the trade name OXXO and other investments in the hotel, construction, auto parts, food and fishing industries, which were considered non-core businesses and were subsequently divested.

 

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In the 1990s, we began a series of strategic transactions to strengthen the competitive positions of our operating subsidiaries. These transactions included the sale of a 30% strategic interest in Coca-Cola FEMSA to a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company and a subsequent public offering of Coca-Cola FEMSA shares, both of which occurred in 1993. Coca-Cola FEMSA listed its L shares on the Mexican Stock Exchange and, in the form of American Depositary Shares, or ADSs, on the New York Stock Exchange, or NYSE.

In 1998, we completed a reorganization that changed our capital structure by converting our outstanding capital stock at the time of the reorganization into BD Units and B Units, and united the shareholders of FEMSA and the former shareholders of Grupo Industrial Emprex, S.A. de C.V. (which we refer to as Emprex) at the same corporate level through an exchange offer that was consummated on May 11, 1998. As part of the reorganization, FEMSA listed ADSs on the NYSE representing BD Units, and listed the BD Units and its B Units on the Mexican Stock Exchange.

In May 2003, our subsidiary Coca-Cola FEMSA expanded its operations throughout Latin America by acquiring 100% of Panamerican Beverages, Inc. (which we refer to as Panamco), then the largest soft drink bottler in Latin America in terms of sales volume in 2002. Through its acquisition of Panamco, Coca-Cola FEMSA began producing and distributing Coca-Cola trademark beverages in additional territories in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, along with bottled water, beer and other beverages in some of these territories.

In April 2008, FEMSA shareholders approved a proposal to amend our bylaws in order to preserve the unit structure for our shares that has been in place since May 1998, and to maintain our existing share structure beyond May 11, 2008. Our bylaws previously provided that on May 11, 2008 our Series D-B Shares would convert into Series B Shares and our Series D-L Shares would convert into Series L Shares with limited voting rights. In addition, our bylaws provided that, on May 11, 2008, our current unit structure would cease to exist and each of our B Units would be unbundled into five Series B Shares, while each BD Unit would unbundle into three Series B Shares and two newly issued Series L Shares. Following the April 22, 2008 shareholder approvals, the automatic conversion of our share and unit structures no longer exist, and, absent shareholder action, our share structure will continue to be composed of Series B Shares, which must represent not less than 51% of our outstanding capital stock, and Series D-B and Series D-L Shares, which together may represent up to 49% of our outstanding capital stock. Our Unit structure, absent shareholder action, will continue to consist of B Units, which bundle five Series B Shares, and BD Units, which bundle one Series B Share, two Series D-B Shares and two Series D-L Shares. See “Item 9. The Offer and Listing—Description of Securities.”

In January 2010, FEMSA announced that its board of directors unanimously approved a definitive agreement under which FEMSA would exchange its brewery business of Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma for a 20% economic interest in Heineken Group, one of the world’s leading brewers. In April 2010, FEMSA announced the closing of the transaction, after Heineken N.V., Heineken Holding N.V. and FEMSA approved the transaction. Under the terms of the agreement, FEMSA received 43,018,320 shares of Heineken Holding N.V. and 43,009,699 shares of Heineken N.V., with an additional 29,172,504 shares of Heineken N.V. (which shares we refer to as the Allotted Shares) delivered pursuant to an allotted share delivery instrument, or the ASDI, with the final installment delivered in October 2011. As of December 31, 2015, FEMSA’s interest in Heineken N.V. represented 12.53% of Heineken N.V.’s outstanding capital and 14.94% of Heineken Holding N.V.’s outstanding capital, resulting in our 20% economic interest in the Heineken Group. The principal terms of the Heineken transaction documents are summarized below in “ Item 10. Additional Information—Material Contracts.”

In January 2013, as part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s efforts to expand its geographic reach, it acquired a 51% non-controlling majority stake in CCFPI from The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA has an option to acquire the remaining 49% stake in CCFPI at any time during the seven years following the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA also has a put option to sell its ownership in CCFPI to The Coca-Cola Company commencing on the fifth anniversary of the closing date and ending on the sixth anniversary of the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently manages the day-to-day operations of the business; however, pursuant to its shareholders’ agreement with The Coca-Cola Company (a) during a four-year period ending January 25, 2017 all decisions must be approved jointly with The Coca-Cola Company, (b) following this four-year period, all decisions related to the annual normal operations plan and any other ordinary matters will be approved only by Coca-Cola FEMSA (c) The Coca-Cola Company has the right to appoint (and may remove) CCFPI’s chief financial officer, and (d) Coca-Cola FEMSA has the right to appoint (and may remove) the chief executive officer and all other officers of CCFPI. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently records its investment in CCFPI using the equity method.

 

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In May 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its merger with Grupo Yoli, a Mexican bottler operating mainly in the state of Guerrero as well as in parts of the state of Oaxaca.

In May 2013, FEMSA Comercio through one of its subsidiaries, Cadena Comercial de Farmacias, S.A.P.I. de C.V. (which we refer to as CCF), closed the acquisition of Farmacias YZA, a leading drugstore operator in Southeast Mexico, headquartered in Merida, Yucatan. The founding shareholders of Farmacias YZA hold a 25% stake in CCF. In a separate transaction, on May 13, 2013, CCF acquired Farmacias FM Moderna, a leading drugstore operator in the western state of Sinaloa.

In August 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its acquisition of Companhia Fluminense, a franchise that operates in parts of the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.

In October 2013, our Board of Directors agreed to separate the roles of chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer, ratifying José Antonio Fernández Carbajal as Executive Chairman of the Board and naming Carlos Salazar Lomelín as Chief Executive Officer of FEMSA.

In October 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA closed its acquisition of Spaipa, a Brazilian bottler with operations in the state of Parana and in parts of the state of Sao Paulo. For more information on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s recent transactions, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA – Corporate History”.

In December 2013, FEMSA Comercio, through one of its subsidiaries, purchased the operating assets and trademarks of Doña Tota, a leading quick-service restaurant operator in Mexico. The founding shareholders of Doña Tota hold a 20% stake in the FEMSA Comercio subsidiary that now operates the Doña Tota business.

Since 1995, FEMSA Comercio has provided services to retail service stations for fuels, motor oils and other car care products through agreements with third parties that own Petroleos Mexicanos (“PEMEX”) franchises. In March 2015, following changes to the legal framework and considering the potential expansion and synergies arising from this business as part of Mexico’s energy reform, FEMSA Comercio began to acquire PEMEX’s service station franchises and to obtain permits from PEMEX to operate such service stations as franchisee.

In June 2015, CCF acquired 100% of Farmacias Farmacon, a regional pharmacy chain consisting at that time of more than 200 stores in the northwestern Mexican states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Baja California and Baja California Sur.

In September 2015, FEMSA Comercio acquired 60% of Grupo Socofar (which we refer to as Socofar), a leading South American drugstore operator based in Santiago, Chile. Socofar operated at that time, directly and through franchises, more than 600 drugstores and 150 beauty stores throughout Chile and over 150 drugstores throughout Colombia. FEMSA Comercio has the right to appoint the majority of the members of Socofar’s board of directors and exercises day-to-day operating control over Socofar. As part of the shareholders agreement entered into with the former controlling shareholder, such minority shareholder has the right to appoint two members of the board of directors of Socofar. In connection with the acquisition of 60% of Socofar, FEMSA Comercio entered into option transactions regarding the remaining 40% non-controlling interest not held by FEMSA Comercio. The former controlling shareholders of Socofar may be able to put some or all of that interest to FEMSA Comercio beginning (i) 42 months after the acquisition, upon the occurrence of certain events and (ii) 60 months after the initial acquisition, in any event, FEMSA Comercio can call the remaining 40% non-controlling interest beginning on the seventh anniversary of the initial acquisition date. Both of these options would be exercisable at the then fair value of the interest and shall remain indefinitely.

 

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Ownership Structure

We conduct our business through our principal sub-holding companies as shown in the following diagram and table:

Principal Sub-holding Companies—Ownership Structure

As of March 31, 2016

 

LOGO

 

(1) Compañía Internacional de Bebidas, S.A. de C.V., which we refer to as CIBSA.

 

(2) Percentage of issued and outstanding capital stock owned by CIBSA (63% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock with full voting rights). See “Item 4. Information on the Company – Coca-Cola FEMSA – Capital Stock.”

 

(3) Ownership in CB Equity held through various FEMSA subsidiaries.

 

(4) Combined economic interest in Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V.

 

(5) Includes FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division and FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division.

The following table presents an overview of our operations by reportable segment and by geographic area:

Operations by Segment—Overview

Year Ended December 31, 2015 and % of growth (decrease) vs. previous year

 

     Coca-Cola FEMSA     FEMSA Comercio  –
Retail Division
    FEMSA Comercio  –
Fuel Division (4)
     CB  Equity (1)  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos, except for employees and percentages)  

Total revenues

   Ps. 152,360         3   Ps. 132,891        21   Ps. 18,510         NA       Ps. —           —     

Gross Profit

     72,030         5     47,291        20     1,420         NA         —           —     
Share of the profit (loss) of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes      155         224 % (2)       (10     (127 %) (3)       —           NA         5,879         12

Total assets

     210,249         (1 %)      67,211        54     3,230         NA         95,502         11

Employees

     83,712         0.4     133,748        21     4,551         NA         —           —     

 

(1) CB Equity holds our Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. shares.

 

(2) Reflects the percentage increase between the gain of Ps. 155 million recorded in 2015 and the loss of Ps. 125 million recorded in 2014.

 

(3) Reflects the percentage decrease between the loss of Ps. 10 million recorded in 2015 and the gain of Ps. 37 million recorded in 2014.

 

(4) The operations that compose our FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division were acquired and have been treated as a separate business segment since 2015. As such, no results of operations are available for this segment for periods prior to 2015.

 

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Total Revenues Summary by Segment (1)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015      2014      2013  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos)  

Coca-Cola FEMSA

   Ps. 152,360       Ps. 147,298       Ps. 156,011   

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

     132,891         109,624         97,572   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

     18,510         —           —     

Other

     22,774         20,069         17,254   

Consolidated total revenues

   Ps. 311,589       Ps. 263,449       Ps. 258,097   

 

(1) The sum of the financial data for each of our segments differs from our consolidated financial information due to intercompany transactions, which are eliminated in consolidation, and certain assets and activities of FEMSA.

Total Revenues Summary by Geographic Area (1)

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015      2014      2013  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos)  

Mexico and Central America (2)

   Ps. 228,563       Ps. 186,736       Ps. 171,726   

South America (3)

     74,928         69,172         55,157   

Venezuela

     8,904         8,835         31,601   

Consolidated total revenues

   Ps. 311,589       Ps. 263,449       Ps. 258,097   

 

(1) The sum of the financial data for each geographic area differs from our consolidated financial information due to intercompany transactions, which are eliminated in consolidation.

 

(2) Central America includes Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Domestic (Mexico-only) revenues were Ps. 218,809 million, Ps. 178,125 million and Ps. 163,351 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively.

 

(3) South America includes Brazil, Colombia, Argentina and Chile. South America revenues include revenues from our operations in Brazil of Ps. 39,749 million, Ps. 45,799 million and Ps. 31,138 million; revenues from our operations in Colombia of Ps. 14,283 million, Ps. 14,207 million and Ps. 13,354 million; revenues from our operations in Argentina of Ps. 14,004 million, Ps. 9,714 million and Ps. 10,729 million, for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively and revenues from our operations in Chile of Ps. 7,586 million for the year ended December 31, 2015.

Significant Subsidiaries

The following table sets forth our significant subsidiaries as of December 31, 2015:

 

Name of Company

   Jurisdiction of
Establishment
   Percentage
Owned
 

CIBSA:

   Mexico      100.0

Coca-Cola FEMSA

   Mexico      47.9 % (1)  

Emprex:

   Mexico      100.0

FEMSA Comercio (2)

   Mexico      100.0

CB Equity (3)

   United Kingdom      100.0

 

(1) Percentage of capital stock. FEMSA, through CIBSA, owns 63% of the shares of Coca-Cola FEMSA with full voting rights.

 

(2) Includes FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division and FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division.

 

(3) Ownership in CB Equity held through various FEMSA subsidiaries. CB Equity holds our Heineken N.V and Heineken Holding N.V. shares.

 

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Business Strategy

We understand the importance of connecting with our end consumers by interpreting their needs, and ultimately delivering the right products to them for the right occasions and the optimal value proposition. We strive to achieve this by developing brand value, expanding our significant distribution capabilities and improving the efficiency of our operations while aiming to reach our full potential. We continue to improve our information gathering and processing systems in order to better know and understand what our consumers want and need, and we are improving our production and distribution by more efficiently leveraging our asset base.

Our objective is to create economic, social and environmental value for our stakeholders—including our employees, our consumers, our shareholders and the enterprises and institutions within our society—now and into the future.

We believe that the competencies that our businesses have developed can be replicated in other geographic regions. This underlying principle guided our consolidation and growth efforts, which led to our current continental footprint. We have presence in Mexico, Central and South America and the Philippines including some of the most populous metropolitan areas in Latin America—which has provided us with opportunities to create value through both an improved ability to execute our strategies in complex markets and the use of superior marketing tools. We have also increased our capabilities to operate and succeed in other geographic regions by improving management skills in order to obtain a precise understanding of local consumer needs. Going forward, we intend to use those capabilities to continue our international expansion of both Coca-Cola FEMSA and FEMSA Comercio, expanding both our geographic footprint and our presence in the non-alcoholic beverage industry and small box retail formats, as well as taking advantage of potential opportunities across markets to leverage our skill set and key competencies. One such opportunity is our recent entry into the retail service station business for fuels, motor oils and other car care products in Mexico, through FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division, where we are applying our retail and operational capabilities to develop an attractive value proposition for consumers, while creating synergies with our OXXO stores.

Coca-Cola FEMSA

Overview

Coca-Cola FEMSA is the largest franchise bottler of Coca-Cola trademark beverages in the world. It operates in territories in the following countries:

 

   

Mexico—a substantial portion of central Mexico, the southeast and northeast of Mexico (including the Gulf region).

 

   

Central America—Guatemala (Guatemala City and surrounding areas), Nicaragua (nationwide), Costa Rica (nationwide) and Panama (nationwide).

 

   

Colombia—most of the country.

 

   

Venezuela—nationwide.

 

   

Brazil—a major part of the states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, the states of Parana and Mato Grosso do Sul and part of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Goias.

 

   

Argentina—Buenos Aires and surrounding areas.

 

   

Philippines—nationwide (through a joint venture with The Coca-Cola Company).

Coca-Cola FEMSA was incorporated on October 30, 1991 as a stock corporation with variable capital ( sociedad anónima de capital variable ) under the laws of Mexico for a term of 99 years. On December 5, 2006, as required by amendments to the Mexican Securities Market Law, Coca-Cola FEMSA became a publicly traded stock

 

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corporation with variable capital ( sociedad anónima bursátil de capital variable ). Coca-Cola FEMSA’s legal name is Coca-Cola FEMSA, S.A.B. de C.V. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal executive offices are located at Calle Mario Pani No. 100, Colonia Santa Fe Cuajimalpa, Delegación Cuajimalpa de Morelos, 05348, Mexico City, Mexico. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s telephone number at this location is (52-55) 1519-5000. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s website is www.coca-colafemsa.com.

The following is an overview of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations by consolidated reporting segment in 2015.

Operations by Consolidated Reporting Segment—Overview

Year Ended December 31, 2015

 

     Revenues     Gross Profit  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos, except percentages)  

Mexico and Central America (1)

   Ps. 78,709         51.7   Ps. 40,130         55.7

South America (2) (excluding Venezuela)

     64,752         42.5     27,532         38.2

Venezuela

     8,899         5.8     4,368         6.1
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Consolidated

   Ps. 152,360         100.0   Ps. 72,030         100.0

 

(1) Includes Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

 

(2) Includes Colombia, Brazil and Argentina.

Corporate History

Coca-Cola FEMSA commenced operations in 1979, when one of our subsidiaries acquired certain sparkling beverage bottlers in Mexico City and surrounding areas. In 1991, we transferred our ownership in the bottlers to FEMSA Refrescos, S.A. de C.V., the corporate predecessor to Coca-Cola FEMSA.

In June 1993, a subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company subscribed for 30% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock in the form of Series D shares. In September 1993, we sold Series L shares that represented 19% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock to the public, and Coca-Cola FEMSA listed these shares on the Mexican Stock Exchange and, in the form of ADSs, on the NYSE.

In a series of transactions since 1994, Coca-Cola FEMSA has acquired new territories, brands and other businesses which today comprise Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business. In May 2003, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired Panamerican Beverages Inc., or Panamco, and began producing and distributing Coca-Cola trademark beverages in additional territories in the central and gulf regions of Mexico and in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama), Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, along with bottled water, beer and other beverages in some of these territories.

In November 2006, we acquired 148,000,000 of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Series D shares from certain subsidiaries of The Coca-Cola Company, which increased our ownership of Coca-Cola FEMSA to 53.7%.

In November 2007, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired together with The Coca-Cola Company 100% of the shares of capital stock of Jugos del Valle, S.A.P.I. de C.V., or Jugos del Valle. In 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA, The Coca-Cola Company and all Mexican and Brazilian Coca-Cola bottlers entered into a joint business for the Mexican and Brazilian operations, respectively, of Jugos del Valle.

In December 2007 and May 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA sold most of its proprietary brands to The Coca-Cola Company. The proprietary brands are now being licensed back to Coca-Cola FEMSA by The Coca-Cola Company pursuant to its bottler agreements.

In May 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA entered into a transaction with The Coca-Cola Company to acquire its wholly owned bottling franchise Refrigerantes Minas Gerais, Ltda., or REMIL, located in the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

 

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In July 2008, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired the Agua de los Angeles bulk water business in Mexico City and surrounding areas from Grupo Embotellador CIMSA, S.A. de C.V., at the time one of the Coca-Cola bottling franchises in Mexico. The trademarks remain with The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA subsequently merged Agua de los Angeles into its bulk water business under the Ciel brand.

In February 2009, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired together with The Coca-Cola Company, the Brisa bottled water business in Colombia from Bavaria, S.A., a subsidiary of SABMiller plc. Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired the production assets and the distribution territory and The Coca-Cola Company acquired the Brisa brand.

In May 2009, Coca-Cola FEMSA entered into an agreement to manufacture, distribute and sell the Crystal trademark water products in Brazil jointly with The Coca-Cola Company.

In August 2010, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired from The Coca-Cola Company along with other Brazilian Coca-Cola bottlers, Leão Alimentos e Bebidas, Ltda. or Leão Alimentos, manufacturer and distributor of the Matte Leão tea brand, which would later be integrated with the Brazilian operations of Jugos del Valle.

In March 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired, together with The Coca-Cola Company, Grupo Industrias Lácteas, S.A. (also known as Estrella Azul), a Panamanian conglomerate that participates in the dairy and juice-based beverage categories in Panama.

In October 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA merged with Grupo Tampico, a Mexican bottler with operations in the states of Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosi and Veracruz, as well as in parts of the states of Hidalgo, Puebla and Queretaro.

In December 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA merged with Grupo CIMSA, a Mexican Coca-Cola bottler with operations mainly in the states of Morelos and Mexico, as well as in parts of the states of Guerrero and Michoacan. As part of its merger with Grupo CIMSA, Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquired a 13.2% equity interest in Promotora Industrial Azucarera, S.A de C.V., or PIASA.

In May 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA merged with Grupo Fomento Queretano, a Mexican bottler with operations mainly in the state of Queretaro, as well as in parts of the states of Mexico, Hidalgo and Guanajuato. As part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s merger with Grupo Fomento Queretano it also acquired an additional 12.9% equity interest in PIASA.

In August 2012, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired, through Jugos del Valle, an indirect participation in Santa Clara Mercantil de Pachuca, S.A. de C.V., or Santa Clara, a producer of milk and dairy products in Mexico.

In January 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired a 51% non-controlling majority stake in CCFPI from The Coca-Cola Company.

In May 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA merged with Grupo Yoli, a Mexican bottler with operations mainly in the state of Guerrero as well as in parts of the state of Oaxaca. As part of its merger with Grupo Yoli, Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquired an additional 10.1% equity interest in PIASA, for a total ownership as of April 8, 2016 of 36.3%.

In August 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired Companhia Fluminense, a franchise that operates in parts of the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. As part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s acquisition of Companhia Fluminense, Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquired an additional 1.2% equity interest in Leão Alimentos.

In October 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquired Spaipa a Brazilian bottler with operations in the state of Parana and in parts of the state of Sao Paulo. As part of its acquisition of Spaipa, Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquired an additional 5.8% equity interest in Leão Alimentos, for a total ownership as of April 8, 2016 of 24.4%, and a 50% stake in Fountain Água Mineral Ltda., a joint venture to develop the water category together with The Coca-Cola Company.

 

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Capital Stock

As of April 15, 2016, we indirectly owned Series A shares equal to 47.9% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock (63% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock with full voting rights). As of April 15, 2016, The Coca-Cola Company indirectly owned Series D shares equal to 28.1% of the capital stock of Coca-Cola FEMSA (37% of the capital stock with full voting rights). Series L shares with limited voting rights, which trade on the Mexican Stock Exchange and in the form of ADSs on the NYSE, constitute the remaining 24% of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital stock.

 

LOGO

Business Strategy

Coca-Cola FEMSA operates with a large geographic footprint in Latin America. In January 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA restructured the management of its operations as follows: (i) Mexico (covering certain territories in Mexico); (ii) Latin America (covering certain territories in Guatemala, and all of Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama, certain territories in Argentina, most of Colombia and all of Venezuela); (iii) Brazil (covering a major part of the states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais, the states of Parana and Mato Grosso do Sul and part of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Goias), and (iv) Asia (covering all of the Philippines through a joint venture with The Coca-Cola Company). Through this restructuring, Coca-Cola FEMSA created a more flexible organizational structure to execute its strategies and continue with its track record of growth. Coca-Cola FEMSA has also aligned its business strategies more efficiently, ensuring a faster introduction of new products and categories, and a more rapid and effective design and deployment of commercial models.

To maximize growth and profitability and to create value for its shareholders and customers, Coca-Cola FEMSA plans on executing the following key strategies: (i) continue evolving its commercial and client segmentation models to capture the industry’s long-term value potential; (ii) implement multi-segmentation strategies to target customers by consumption occasion, competitive environment and income level; (iii) implement well-planned product development, packaging, pricing and marketing strategies through different distribution channels; (iv) drive product innovation along its different product categories; (v) develop new businesses and distribution channels; and (vi) drive operational efficiencies throughout its organization to achieve the full operating potential of its commercial models and processes. In furtherance of these efforts, Coca-Cola FEMSA intends to continue to focus on, among other initiatives, the following:

 

   

working with The Coca-Cola Company to develop a business model to continue exploring and participating in new lines of beverages, extending existing product lines and effectively advertising and marketing its products;

 

   

developing and expanding its still beverage portfolio through innovation, strategic acquisitions and by entering into agreements to acquire companies with The Coca-Cola Company;

 

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expanding its bottled water strategy with The Coca-Cola Company through innovation and selective acquisitions to maximize profitability across its market territories;

 

   

strengthening its selling capabilities and go-to-market strategies, including pre-sale, conventional selling and hybrid routes, in order to get closer to its customers and help them satisfy the beverage needs of consumers;

 

   

implementing selective packaging strategies designed to increase consumer demand for its products and to build a strong returnable base for the Coca-Cola brand;

 

   

replicating its best practices throughout the value chain;

 

   

rationalizing and adapting its organizational and asset structure in order to be in a better position to anticipate and respond to industry changes and trends in a competitive environment;

 

   

building a multi-cultural collaborative team, from top to bottom; and

 

   

broadening its geographic footprint through organic growth and strategic joint ventures, mergers and acquisitions.

Coca-Cola FEMSA seeks to increase sales of its products in the territories where it operates. To that end, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s marketing teams continuously develop sales strategies tailored to its different customers across of its various territories and distribution channels. Coca-Cola FEMSA continues to develop its product portfolio to better meet market demand and maintain its overall profitability. To stimulate and respond to consumer demand, Coca-Cola FEMSA continues to introduce new categories, products and presentations. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Product and Packaging Mix.” In addition, because Coca-Cola FEMSA views its relationship with The Coca-Cola Company as integral to its business, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses market information systems and strategies developed with The Coca-Cola Company to improve its business and marketing strategies. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Marketing.”

Coca-Cola FEMSA also continuously seeks to increase productivity in its facilities through infrastructure and process reengineering for improved asset utilization. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s capital expenditure program includes investments in production and distribution facilities, bottles, cases, coolers and information systems. Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that this program will allow it to maintain its capacity and flexibility to innovate and to anticipate and respond to consumer demand for its products.

As mentioned above, in 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA redesigned its corporate structure to strengthen the core functions of its organization. Through this restructuring, Coca-Cola FEMSA created specialized departments (centers of excellence) focused on manufacturing, distribution and logistics, commercial, and IT innovation areas. These departments not only enable centralized collaboration and knowledge sharing, but also drive standards of excellence and best practices in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s key strategic capabilities. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s priorities include enhanced manufacturing efficiency, improved distribution and logistics, and cutting-edge IT-enabled commercial innovation.

Coca-Cola FEMSA focuses on management quality as a key element of its growth strategy and remains committed to fostering the development of quality management at all levels. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Strategic Talent Management Model is designed to enable it to reach its full potential by developing the capabilities of its employees and executives. This holistic model works to build the skills necessary for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s employees and executives to reach their maximum potential, while contributing to the achievement of its short- and long-term objectives. To support this capability development model, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s board of directors allocates a portion of its yearly operating budget to fund these management training programs.

Sustainable development is a comprehensive part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategic framework for business operation and growth. Coca-Cola FEMSA bases its efforts in its core foundation, its ethics and values. Coca-Cola FEMSA focuses on three main

 

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areas, (i) its people, by encouraging the comprehensive development of its employees and their families; (ii) its communities, by promoting the generation of sustainable communities in which it serves, an attitude of health, self-care, adequate nutrition and physical activity, and evaluating the impact of its value chain; and (iii) the planet, by establishing guidelines that it believes will result in efficient use of natural resources to minimize the impact that its operations might have on the environment and create a broader awareness of caring for the environment.

CCFPI Joint Venture

On January 25, 2013, as part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s efforts to expand its geographic reach, it acquired a 51% non-controlling majority stake in CCFPI from The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA has an option to acquire the remaining 49% stake in CCFPI at any time during the seven years following the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA also has a put option to sell its ownership in CCFPI to The Coca-Cola Company commencing on the fifth anniversary of the closing date and ending on the sixth anniversary of the closing date. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently manages the day-to-day operations of the business; however, pursuant to its shareholders’ agreement with The Coca-Cola Company (a) during a four-year period ending January 25, 2017 all decisions must be approved jointly with The Coca-Cola Company, (b) following this four-year period, all decisions related to the annual normal operations plan and any other ordinary matters will be approved only by Coca-Cola FEMSA, (c) The Coca-Cola Company has the right to appoint (and may remove) CCFPI’s chief financial officer and (d) Coca-Cola FEMSA has the right to appoint (and may remove) the chief executive officer and all other officers of CCFPI.

As of December 31, 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s investment under the equity method in CCFPI was Ps. 9,996 million. See Notes 10 and 26 to our audited consolidated financial statements. CCFPI’s product portfolio in the Philippines consists of Coca-Cola trademark beverages and its total sales volume in 2015 reached 522.5 million unit cases. The operations of CCFPI are comprised of 19 production plants and serve close to 806,369 customers.

The Philippines presents significant opportunities for further growth. Coca-Cola has been present in the Philippines since the start of the 20th century and since 1912 it has been locally producing Coca-Cola products. The Philippines received the first Coca-Cola bottling and distribution franchise in Asia. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategic framework for growth in the Philippines is based on three pillars: portfolio, route to market and supply chain.

 

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Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Territories

The following map shows Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, including CCFPI, our joint venture in the Philippines with The Coca-Cola Company, giving estimates in each case of the population to which it offers products and the number of retailers its beverages as of December 31, 2015:

 

LOGO

 

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Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Products

Coca-Cola FEMSA produces, markets, sells and distributes Coca-Cola trademark beverages. The Coca-Cola trademark beverages include: sparkling beverages (colas and flavored sparkling beverages), waters and still beverages (including juice drinks, coffee, teas, milk, value-added dairy and isotonic drinks). The following table sets forth Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main products as of December 31, 2015:

 

Colas:

   Mexico  and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Coca-Cola

   ü    ü    ü

Coca-Cola Light

   ü    ü    ü

Coca-Cola Zero

   ü    ü   

Coca-Cola Life

   ü    ü   
Flavored Sparkling Beverages:    Mexico and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Ameyal

   ü      

Canada Dry

   ü      

Chinotto

         ü

Crush

      ü   

Escuis

   ü      

Fanta

   ü    ü   

Fresca

   ü      

Frescolita

   ü       ü

Hit

         ü

Kist

   ü      

Kuat

      ü   

Lift

   ü      

Limon&Nada

   ü      

Mundet

   ü      

Naranja&Nada

   ü      

Quatro

      ü   

Schweppes

   ü    ü    ü

Simba

      ü   

Sprite

   ü    ü   

Victoria

   ü      

Yoli

   ü      

Water:

   Mexico and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Alpina

   ü      

Aquarius (3)

      ü   

Bonaqua

      ü   

Brisa

      ü   

Ciel

   ü      

Crystal

      ü   

Dasani

   ü      

Manantial

      ü   

Nevada

         ü

 

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Other Categories:    Mexico and
Central
America (1)
   South
America (2)
   Venezuela

Cepita (4)

      ü   

Del Prado (5)

   ü      

Estrella Azul (6)

   ü      

FUZE Tea

   ü       ü

Hi-C (7)

   ü    ü   

Santa Clara (8)

   ü      

Jugos del Valle (4)

   ü    ü    ü

Matte Leão (9)

      ü   

Powerade (10)

   ü    ü    ü

Valle Frut (11)

   ü    ü    ü

 

(1) Includes Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

 

(2) Includes Colombia, Brazil and Argentina.

 

(3) Flavored water. In Brazil, also a flavored sparkling beverage.

 

(4) Juice-based beverage.

 

(5) Juice-based beverage in Central America.

 

(6) Milk and value-added dairy and juices.

 

(7) Juice-based beverage. Includes Hi-C Orangeade in Argentina.

 

(8) Milk, value-added dairy and coffee.

 

(9) Ready to drink tea.

 

(10) Isotonic drinks.

 

(11) Orangeade. Includes Del Valle Fresh in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia and Venezuela.

Sales Overview

Coca-Cola FEMSA measures total sales volume in terms of unit cases and number of transactions. “Unit case” refers to 192 ounces of finished beverage product (24 eight-ounce servings) and, when applied to soda fountains, refers to the volume of syrup, powders and concentrate that is required to produce 192 ounces of finished beverage product. “Transactions” refers to the number of single units (e.g. a can or a bottle) sold, regardless of their size or volume or whether they are sold individually or in multipacks, except for fountain which represents multiple transactions based on a standard 12 oz. serving. Except when specifically indicated, “sales volume” in this annual report refers to sales volume in terms of unit cases.

The following table illustrates Coca-Cola FEMSA’s historical sales volume for each of its consolidated territories.

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015      2014      2013 (1)  
     (millions of unit cases)  

Mexico and Central America

        

Mexico

     1,784.5         1,754.9         1,798.0   

Central America (2)

     167.8         163.6         155.6   

South America (excluding Venezuela)

        

Colombia

     320.0         298.4         275.7   

Brazil (3)

     693.6         733.5         525.2   

Argentina

     233.9         225.8         227.1   

Venezuela

     235.6         241.1         222.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Consolidated Volume

     3,435.6         3,417.3         3,204.5   

 

(1) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Yoli from June 2013, Companhia Fluminense from September 2013 and Spaipa from November 2013.

 

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(2) Includes Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

 

(3) Excludes beer sales volume.

The total number of transactions reported by Coca-Cola FEMSA in 2015 grew 0.7% to 20,279.6 million transactions as compared to 2014. Excluding Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, the number of transactions reported by Coca-Cola FEMSA in 2015 would have grown 1.1% to 18,961.5 million as compared to 2014. On the same basis, total transactions reported by Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverage portfolio in 2015 would have grown 0.4% as compared to 2014, mainly driven by the positive performance in Mexico, Colombia, Argentina and Central America; total transactions reported for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage category would have grown 6% as compared to 2014, mainly driven by Colombia, Mexico and Argentina; and transactions reported for bottled water, including bulk water, would have grown 1.6% as compared to 2014, driven by the performance in Colombia and Argentina.

The number of transactions reported by Coca-Cola FEMSA in 2015 in its Mexico and Central America division grew 2.4% to 10,877.1 million transactions as compared to 2014. The number of transactions reported for its sparkling beverage portfolio in 2015 in this division grew 2.8% as compared to 2014, mainly driven by a 2.9% growth in Mexico; transactions reported for its still beverage category in 2015 in this division increased by 6.1% as compared to 2014; and transactions reported for bottled water, including bulk water, decreased 6.4% as compared to 2014, driven by a 7.4% contraction in Mexico. In 2015, the total number of transactions in its Mexican operations and its Central American operations grew 2.3% and 2.8%, respectively, in each case as compared to 2014.

The number of transactions reported by Coca-Cola FEMSA in 2015 in its South America division, excluding Venezuela, decreased 0.7% to 8,084.3 million transactions as compared to 2014. The number of transactions reported for its sparkling beverage portfolio in 2015 in this division decreased 2.7% as compared to 2014, driven by a contraction of 6.4% in Brazil which was partially offset by the positive performance in Colombia and Argentina; transactions reported for its still beverage category in 2015 in this division increased 5.9% as compared to 2014; and transactions reported for bottled water, including bulk water, grew 10% as compared to 2014. In 2015, the total number of transactions in its Brazilian operations decreased 6.6%, in its Colombian operation grew 9.6% and in its Argentine operations grew 5.5%, in each case as compared to 2014.

The number of transactions reported by Coca-Cola FEMSA in 2015 in its Venezuela division decreased 3.6% to 1,318.1 million transactions as compared to 2014. The number of transactions reported for its sparkling beverage portfolio in 2015 in this division decreased 3.2% as compared to 2014, mainly driven by a contraction of 8.7% in its flavored sparkling beverage category; transactions reported for its still beverage category in 2015 in this division decreased 12.5% as compared to 2014; and transactions reported for bottled water, including bulk water, grew 5.3% as compared to 2014.

Product and Packaging Mix

From the more than 113 brands and line extensions of beverages that Coca-Cola FEMSA sells and distributes, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most important brand, Coca-Cola, together with its line extensions, Coca-Cola Light, Coca-Cola Life and Coca-Cola Zero, accounted for 60.8% of total sales volume in 2015. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s next largest brands, Ciel (a water brand from Mexico and its line extensions), Fanta (and its line extensions), Sprite (and its line extensions) and ValleFrut (and its line extensions) accounted for 11.1%, 4.7%, 2.9% and 2.9%, respectively, of total sales volume in 2015. Coca-Cola FEMSA uses the term line extensions to refer to the different flavors and low-calorie versions in which it offers its brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA produces, markets, sells and distributes Coca-Cola trademark beverages in each of its territories in containers authorized by The Coca-Cola Company, which consist of a variety of returnable and non-returnable presentations in the form of glass bottles, cans and plastic bottles mainly made of polyethylene terephthalate, which we refer to as PET.

Coca-Cola FEMSA uses the term presentation to refer to the packaging unit in which it sells its products. Presentation sizes for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Coca-Cola trademark beverages range from a 6.5-ounce personal size to a 3-liter multiple serving size. For all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products excluding water, Coca-Cola FEMSA considers a multiple serving size as equal to, or larger than, 1.0 liter. In general, personal sizes have a higher price per unit case as compared to multiple serving sizes. Coca-Cola FEMSA offers both returnable and non-returnable presentations, which allow it to offer portfolio alternatives based on convenience and affordability to implement

 

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revenue management strategies and to target specific distribution channels and population segments in its territories. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA sells some Coca-Cola trademark beverage syrups in containers designed for soda fountain use, which we refer to as fountain. Coca-Cola FEMSA also sells bottled water products in bulk sizes, which refer to presentations equal to or larger than 5.0 liters, which have a much lower average price per unit case than its other beverage products.

The characteristics of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories are very diverse. Central Mexico and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories in Argentina are densely populated and have a large number of competing beverage brands as compared to the rest of its territories. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories in Brazil are densely populated but have lower consumption of beverage products as compared to Mexico. Portions of southern Mexico, Central America and Colombia are large and mountainous areas with lower population density, lower per capita income and lower consumption of beverages. In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA faces operational disruptions from time to time, which may have an effect on its volumes sold, and consequently, may result in lower consumption.

The following discussion analyzes Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product and packaging mix by its consolidated reporting segments. The volume data presented is for the years 2015, 2014 and 2013.

Mexico and Central America. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product portfolio consists of Coca-Cola trademark beverages, including the Jugos del Valle line of juice-based beverages.

The following table highlights historical sales volume and mix in Mexico and Central America for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015      2014      2013 (1)  
     (in percentages, except for total sales volumes)  

Total Sales Volume

        

Total (millions of unit cases)

     1,952.4         1,918.5         1,953.6   

Growth

     1.8         (1.8      4.4   

Unit Case Volume Mix by Category

        

Sparkling beverages

     74.0         73.2         73.1   

Water (2)

     20.2         21.3         21.2   

Still beverages

     5.8         5.5         5.7   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     100.0         100.0         100.0   

 

(1) Includes volume from the operations of Grupo Yoli from June 2013.

 

(2) Includes bulk water volumes.

In 2015, multiple serving presentations represented 64.6% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Mexico, a 10 basis points increase compared to 2014; and 55% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Central America, a 30 basis points decrease compared to 2014. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategy is to foster consumption of single serve presentations while maintaining multiple serving volumes. In 2015, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume accounted for 36.5% in Mexico, a 140 basis points decrease as compared to 2014; and 37.6% in Central America, a 280 basis points increase as compared to 2014.

In 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverages volume as a percentage of total sales volume in its Mexico and Central America division increased marginally to 74% as compared with 2014.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexico and Central America division reached 1,952.4 million unit cases in 2015, an increase of 1.8% compared to 1,918.5 million unit cases in 2014. The sales volume for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverage category increased 3%, mainly driven by the performance of Coca-Cola brand products. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio, including bulk water, decreased 3.5% mainly driven by a contraction of the Ciel brand in Mexico. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage category grew 5.8% mainly due to the performance of the Jugos del Valle portfolio, the Powerade brand and our Santa Clara dairy business in Mexico.

 

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In 2014, multiple serving presentations represented 64.5% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Mexico, a 170 basis points decrease compared to 2013; and 54.7% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Central America, a 16 basis points decrease compared to 2013. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategy is to foster consumption of single serve presentations while maintaining multiple serving volumes. In 2014, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume accounted for 37.9% in Mexico, a 290 basis points increase as compared to 2013; and 34.8% in Central America, a 150 basis points increase as compared to 2013.

In 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverages volume as a percentage of total sales volume in its Mexico and Central America division increased marginally to 73.2% as compared with 2013.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexico and Central America division (including Grupo Yoli) reached 1,918.5 million unit cases in 2014, a decrease of 1.8% compared to 1,953.6 million unit cases in 2013. The sales volume for Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverage category decreased 1.6%, mainly driven by the impact of price increase to compensate the excise tax to sweetened beverages. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio, excluding bulk water, grew 4.2%, mainly driven by the performance of the Ciel brand in Mexico. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage category decreased 5.5% mainly due to the performance of the Jugos del Valle portfolio in the division. Organically, excluding the non-comparable effect of Grupo Yoli in 2014, total sales volume for Mexico and Central America division reached 1,878.9 million unit cases in 2014, a decrease of 3.8% as compared to 2013. On the same basis, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverage category decreased 3.9%, its bottled water portfolio, excluding bulk water, remained flat, and its still beverage category decreased 7.1%.

In 2013, multiple serving presentations represented 66.2% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Mexico (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli), a 10 basis points decrease compared to 2012; and 56.3% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Central America, a 50 basis points increase compared to 2012. In 2013, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 35% in Mexico (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli), a 160 basis points increase compared to 2012; and 33.3% in Central America, a 30 basis points decrease compared to 2012.

In 2013, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverages volume as a percentage of total sales volume in its Mexico and Central America division (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli) increased marginally to 73.1% as compared with 2012.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexico and Central America division (including Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli) reached 1,953.6 million unit cases in 2013, an increase of 4.4% compared to 1,871.5 million unit cases in 2012. The integration of Grupo Fomento Queretano and Grupo Yoli in Mexico contributed 89.3 million unit cases in 2013 of which sparkling beverages were 72.2%, water was 9.9%, bulk water was 13.4% and still beverages were 4.5%. Excluding the integration of these territories, volume decreased 0.4% to 1,864.2 million unit cases. Organically, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio grew 5.1%, mainly driven by the performance of the Ciel brand in Mexico. On the same basis, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage category grew 3.7% mainly due to the performance of the Jugos del Valle portfolio in the division. These increases partially compensated for the flat volumes in sparkling beverages and a 3.5% decline in the bulk water business.

South America (Excluding Venezuela). Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product portfolio in South America consists mainly of Coca-Cola trademark beverages, including the Jugos del Valle line of juice-based beverages in Colombia and Brazil, and the Heineken beer brands, including Kaiser beer brands, in Brazil, which Coca-Cola FEMSA sells and distributes.

During 2013, as part of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s efforts to foster sparkling beverage consumption in Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA reinforced the 2.0-liter returnable plastic bottle for the Coca-Cola brand and introduced two single-serve 0.2 and 0.3 liter presentations. During 2014, in an effort to increase sales in its still beverage portfolio in the region, Coca-Cola FEMSA reinforced its Jugos del Valle line of business and Powerade brand.

 

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The following table highlights historical total sales volume and sales volume mix in South America (excluding Venezuela), not including beer:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015     2014      2013 (1)  
     (in percentages, except for total sales volume)  

Total Sales Volume

       

Total (millions of unit cases)

     1,247.6        1,257.7         1,028.1   

Growth

     (0.8     22.6         6.3   

Unit Case Volume Mix by Category

       

Sparkling beverages

     82.8        84.1         84.1   

Water (2)

     10.4        9.7         10.1   

Still beverages

     6.8        6.2         5.8   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     100.0        100.0         100.0   

 

(1) Includes volume from the operations of Companhia Fluminense from September 2013 and Spaipa from November 2013.

 

(2) Includes bulk water volumes.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s South America division, excluding Venezuela, decreased 0.8% to 1,247.6 million unit cases in 2015 as compared to 2014, as a result of a volume contraction in Brazil which was partially compensated by volume growth in Colombia and Argentina. The still beverage category grew 7.5%, mainly driven by the Jugos del Valle line of business in Colombia and the Cepita and Hi-C brands in Argentina. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling portfolio decreased 2.3% mainly driven by the volume contraction in Brazil. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio, including bulk water, increased 7.5% driven by the performance of the Aquarius , Kin and Bonaqua brands in Argentina, the Manantial and Brisa brands in Colombia, and the Crystal brand in Brazil.

In 2015, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 29.1% in Colombia, a decrease of 290 basis points as compared to 2014; 22.4% in Argentina, an increase of 270 basis points and 16.9% in Brazil a 140 basis points increase as compared to 2014. In 2015, multiple serving presentations represented 70.6%, 84.5% and 75.7% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Colombia, Argentina and Brazil, respectively.

Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s South America division, excluding Venezuela, increased 22.6% to 1,257.7 million unit cases in 2014 as compared to 2013, as a result of stronger sales volumes in its recently integrated territories in Brazil and better volume performance in Colombia. The still beverage category grew 31.8%, mainly driven by the Jugos del Valle line of business in Colombia and Brazil and the performance of FUZE tea and Leão tea in the division. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling portfolio increased 22.6% mainly driven by the performance of the Coca-Cola brand and other core products in its operations. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio, including bulk water, increased 16.9% driven by performance of the Bonaqua brand in Argentina and the Crystal brand in Brazil. Organically, excluding the non-comparable effect of Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa in 2014, total sales volume in South America division excluding Venezuela, increased 3.7% as compared to 2013. On the same basis, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage category grew 15.3% mainly driven by the Jugos del Valle line of business in the region, its bottled water portfolio, including bulk water, increased 6.9% mainly driven by the performance of the Crystal brand in Brazil, and its sparkling beverage category increased 2.5%.

In 2014, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 32% in Colombia, a decrease of 520 basis points as compared to 2013; 19.7% in Argentina, a decrease of 230 basis points; and 15.5% in Brazil a 50 basis points decrease compared to 2013. In 2014, multiple serving presentations represented 69.8%, 85.3% and 75% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Colombia, Argentina and Brazil, respectively.

 

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Total sales volume in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s South America division, excluding Venezuela, increased 6.3% to 1,028.1 million unit cases in 2013 as compared to 2012, as a result of growth in Colombia and Argentina and the integration of Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa in its Brazilian territories. These effects compensated for an organic volume decline in Brazil. Organically, excluding the non-comparable effect of Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa, volumes remained flat as compared with the previous year. On the same basis, the still beverage category grew 14.3%, mainly driven by the Jugos del Valle line of business in Colombia and Brazil and the performance of FUZE tea in the division. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottled water portfolio, including bulk water, increased 3.8% mainly driven by the Bonaqua brand in Argentina and the Brisa brand in Colombia. These increases compensated for a 1.2% decline in the sparkling beverage portfolio.

In 2013, returnable packaging, as a percentage of total sparkling beverage sales volume, accounted for 37.2% in Colombia, a decrease of 320 basis points as compared to 2012; 22% in Argentina, a decrease of 690 basis points; and 16% in Brazil, excluding the non-comparable effect of Companhia Fluminense and Spaipa, a 170 basis points increase compared to 2012. In 2013, multiple serving presentations represented 66.7%, 85.2% and 72.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Colombia, Argentina and Brazil on an organic basis, respectively.

Coca-Cola FEMSA continues to distribute and sell the Heineken beer portfolio, including Kaiser beer brands, in its Brazilian territories through the 20-year term, consistent with the arrangements in place since 2003 with Cervejarias Kaiser, a subsidiary of the Heineken Group. Beginning in the second quarter of 2005, Coca-Cola FEMSA ceased including beer that it distributes in Brazil in its reported sales volumes.

Venezuela. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s product portfolio in Venezuela consists of Coca-Cola trademark beverages.

The following table highlights historical total sales volume and sales volume mix in Venezuela:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015     2014      2013  
     (in percentages, except for total sales volume)  

Total Sales Volume

       

Total (millions of unit cases)

     235.6        241.1         222.9   

Growth

     (2.3     8.2         7.3   

Unit Case Volume Mix by Category

  

Sparkling beverages

     86.2        85.7         85.6   

Water (1)

     6.8        6.5         6.9   

Still beverages

     7.0        7.8         7.5   
  

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     100.0        100.0         100.0   

 

(1) Includes bulk water volumes.

Coca-Cola FEMSA has implemented a product portfolio rationalization strategy that allows it to minimize the impact of certain operating disruptions that have been recurrent in Venezuela over the last several years related to difficulties in accessing raw materials due to the delay in obtaining the corresponding import authorizations and the Venezuelan exchange controls. In addition, from time to time, Coca-Cola FEMSA experiences operating disruptions due to prolonged negotiations of collective bargaining agreements.

Total sales volume decreased 2.3% to 235.6 million unit cases in 2015, as compared to 241.1 million unit cases in 2014. The sales volume in the sparkling beverage category decreased 2.1%, driven by a contraction in our flavored sparkling beverage portfolio, which was partially compensated by the positive performance of the Coca-Cola brand, which grew 3.4%. The bottled water business, including bulk water, grew 6.1% mainly driven by the Nevada brand. The still beverage category decreased 11.3%.

 

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In 2015, multiple serving presentations represented 82.4% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a 50 basis points increase as compared to 2014. In 2015, returnable presentations represented 6.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, which remained flat as compared to 2014.

Total sales volume increased 8.2% to 241.1 million unit cases in 2014, as compared to 222.9 million unit cases in 2013. The sales volume in the sparkling beverage category grew 8.3%, driven by the strong performance of the Coca-Cola brand, which grew 15.3%. The bottled water business, including bulk water, grew 1.6% mainly driven by the Nevada brand. The still beverage category increased 10.8%, due to the performance of the Del Valle Fresh orangeade and Powerade brand.

In 2014, multiple serving presentations represented 81.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a 100 basis points increase as compared to 2013. In 2014, returnable presentations represented 6.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a 20 basis points increase as compared to 2013.

Total sales volume increased 7.3% to 222.9 million unit cases in 2013, as compared to 207.7 million unit cases in 2012. The sales volume in the sparkling beverage category grew 4.5%, driven by the strong performance of the Coca-Cola brand, which grew 10%. The bottled water business, including bulk water, grew 33.2% mainly driven by the Nevada brand. The still beverage category increased 23.5%, due to the performance of the Del Valle Fresh orangeade and Kapo .

In 2013, multiple serving presentations represented 80.9% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, a 100 basis points increase compared to 2012. In 2013, returnable presentations represented 6.8% of total sparkling beverages sales volume in Venezuela, an 80 basis points decrease compared to 2012.

Seasonality

Sales of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products are seasonal in all of the countries where it operates, as its sales volumes generally increase during the summer of each country and during the year-end holiday season. In Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA typically achieves its highest sales during the summer months of April through September as well as during the year-end holidays in December. In Brazil and Argentina, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s highest sales levels occur during the summer months of October through March and the year-end holidays in December.

Marketing

Coca-Cola FEMSA, in conjunction with The Coca-Cola Company, has developed a marketing strategy to promote the sale and consumption of its products. Coca-Cola FEMSA relies extensively on advertising, sales promotions and retailer support programs to target the particular preferences of its consumers. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s consolidated marketing expenses in 2015, net of contributions by The Coca-Cola Company, were Ps. 3,447 million. The Coca-Cola Company contributed an additional Ps. 3,749 million in 2015, which mainly includes contributions for coolers, bottles and cases. Through the use of advanced information technology, Coca-Cola FEMSA has collected customer and consumer information that allow it to tailor its marketing strategies to target different types of customers located in each of its territories and to meet the specific needs of the various markets it serves.

Retailer Support Programs . Support programs include providing retailers with point-of-sale display materials and consumer sales promotions, such as contests, sweepstakes and the giveaway of product samples.

Coolers . Coolers play an integral role in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s clients’ plans for success. Increasing both cooler coverage and the number of cooler doors among its retailers is important to ensure that Coca-Cola FEMSA’s wide variety of products are properly displayed, while strengthening its merchandising capacity in the traditional sales channel to significantly improve its point-of-sale execution.

Advertising . Coca-Cola FEMSA advertises in all major communications media. Coca-Cola FEMSA focuses its advertising efforts on increasing brand recognition by consumers and improving its customer relations.

 

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National advertising campaigns are designed and proposed by The Coca-Cola Company’s local affiliates in the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, with Coca-Cola FEMSA’s input at the local or regional level. Point-of-sale merchandising and advertising efforts are proposed and implemented by Coca-Cola FEMSA, with a focus on increasing its connection with customers and consumers.

Channel Marketing . In order to provide more dynamic and specialized marketing of its products, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategy is to classify its markets and develop targeted efforts for each consumer segment or distribution channel. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal channels are small retailers, “on-premise” accounts such as restaurants and bars, supermarkets and third party distributors. Presence in these channels entails a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the purchasing patterns and preferences of various groups of beverage consumers in each of the different types of locations or distribution channels. In response to this analysis, Coca-Cola FEMSA tailors its product, price, packaging and distribution strategies to meet the particular needs of and exploit the potential of each channel.

Multi-Segmentation . Coca-Cola FEMSA has implemented a multi-segmentation strategy in all of its markets. These strategies consist of the implementation of different product/price/package portfolios by market cluster or group. These clusters are defined based on consumption occasion, competitive environment and income level, rather than solely on the types of distribution channels.

Client Value Management . Coca-Cola FEMSA continues transforming its commercial models to focus on its customers’ value potential using a value-based segmentation approach to capture the industry’s potential. Coca-Cola FEMSA started the rollout of this new model in its Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Brazil operations in 2009. At the end of 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA had successfully transformed the commercial models in all of its territories.

Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that the implementation of these strategies described above also enables it to respond to competitive initiatives with channel-specific responses as opposed to market-wide responses. In addition, it allows Coca-Cola FEMSA to be more efficient in the way it goes to market and invests its marketing resources in those segments that could provide a higher return. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s marketing, segmentation and distribution activities are facilitated by its management information systems, and are all incorporated within its recently created centers of excellence.

Centers of Excellence . Coca-Cola FEMSA’s centers of excellence focus on manufacturing, distribution and logistics, commercial, and IT innovation areas. These centers not only enable centralized collaboration and knowledge sharing, but also drive standards of excellence and best practices in its key strategic capabilities.

Manufacturing Center of Excellence . This center focuses on developing industry-leading operating models, practices and processes mainly by reducing operating costs, increasing efficiency and productivity of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s manufacturing assets, minimizing waste disposal by optimizing the materials used in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s manufacturing processes, and promoting high industrial quality and product safety. We are in the process of developing a Manufacturing Execution System, a new digital platform that will enable us to map and monitor performance at Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants, including critical data from Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production equipment and processes.

Distribution and Logistics Center of Excellence . This center seeks to ensure best-in-class customer service by optimizing performance in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s supply chain, transport engineering and equipment design, warehouse management and secondary distribution from Coca-Cola FEMSA’s warehouses to the point of sale.

Commercial Center of Excellence . This center is designed to develop expertise and promote excellence across key commercial areas. The center establishes and aligns Coca-Cola FEMSA’s commercial views across key functional areas; identifies and replicates best commercial practices and processes, develops and enforces commercial performance standards; and drives innovation across Coca-Cola FEMSA’s commercial activities.

IT Innovation Center of Excellence . This center is established to support Coca-Cola FEMSA’s other centers of excellence by developing a comprehensive technological platform to create and foster innovative processes, technologies and capabilities to centralize information and promote knowledge sharing across Coca-Cola FEMSA’s strategic areas.

 

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Product Sales and Distribution

The following table provides an overview of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s distribution centers and the retailers to which it sells its products:

 

     As of December 31, 2015  
     Mexico and Central America (1)      South  America (2)      Venezuela  

Distribution centers

     174         67         33   

Retailers (3)

     966,773         829,703         176,503   

 

(1) Includes Mexico, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama.

 

(2) Includes Colombia, Brazil and Argentina.

 

(3) Estimated.

Coca-Cola FEMSA continuously evaluates its distribution model in order to fit with the local dynamics of the marketplace and analyze the way it goes to market, recognizing different service needs from its customers, while looking for a more efficient distribution model. As part of this strategy, Coca-Cola FEMSA is rolling out a variety of new distribution models throughout its territories looking for improvements in its distribution network.

Coca-Cola FEMSA uses several sales and distribution models depending on market, geographic conditions and the customer’s profile: (i) the pre-sale system, which separates the sales and delivery functions, permitting trucks to be loaded with the mix of products that retailers have previously ordered, thereby increasing both sales and distribution efficiency; (ii) the conventional truck route system, in which the person in charge of the delivery makes immediate sales from inventory available on the truck; (iii) a hybrid distribution system, where the same truck carries product available for immediate sale and product previously ordered through the pre-sale system; (iv) the telemarketing system, which could be combined with pre-sales visits; and (v) sales through third-party wholesalers of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products.

As part of the pre-sale system, sales personnel also provide merchandising services during retailer visits, which Coca-Cola FEMSA believes enhance the shopper experience at the point of sale. Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that an adequate number of service visits to retailers and frequency of deliveries are essential elements in an effective selling and distribution system for its products.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s distribution centers range from large warehousing facilities and re-loading centers to small deposit centers. In addition to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s fleet of trucks, Coca-Cola FEMSA distributes its products in certain locations through electric carts and hand-trucks in order to comply with local environmental and traffic regulations. In some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, it retains third parties to transport its finished products from the bottling plants to the distribution centers.

Mexico . Coca-Cola FEMSA contracts with one of our subsidiaries for the transportation of finished products to its distribution centers from its production facilities. From the distribution centers, Coca-Cola FEMSA then distributes its finished products to retailers through its own fleet of trucks.

In Mexico, Coca-Cola FEMSA sells a majority of its beverages at small retail stores to consumers who may take the beverages for consumption at home or elsewhere. Coca-Cola FEMSA also sells products through the “on-premise” consumption segment, supermarkets and other locations. The “on-premise” consumption segment consists of sales through sidewalk stands, restaurants, bars and various types of dispensing machines as well as sales through point-of-sale programs in stadiums, concert halls, auditoriums and theaters.

 

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Brazil . In Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA sold 33.4% of its total sales volume through modern distribution channels in 2015. Modern distribution channels in Brazil include large and organized chain retail outlets such as wholesale supermarkets, discount stores and convenience stores that sell fast-moving consumer goods, where retailers can buy large volumes of products from various producers. Also in Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA distributes finished products to retailers through a combination of its own fleet of trucks and third party distributors, while Coca-Cola FEMSA maintains control over the selling function. In designated zones in Brazil, third-party distributors purchase Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products at a discount from the wholesale price and resell the products to retailers.

Territories other than Mexico and Brazil . Coca-Cola FEMSA distributes its finished products to retailers through a combination of its own fleet of trucks and third party distributors. In most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, an important part of its total sales volume is sold through small retailers, with low supermarket penetration.

Competition

While Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that its products enjoy wider recognition and greater consumer loyalty than those of its principal competitors, the markets in the territories where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates are highly competitive. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitors are local Pepsi bottlers and other bottlers and distributors of local beverage brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA faces increased competition in many of its territories from producers of low price beverages, commonly referred to as “B brands.” A number of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s competitors in Central America, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina offer beer in addition to sparkling beverages, still beverages, and water, which may enable them to achieve distribution efficiencies.

While competitive conditions are different in each of its territories. Coca-Cola FEMSA competes mainly in terms of price, packaging, effective promotional activities, access to retail outlets and sufficient shelf space, customer service, product innovation and product alternatives and the ability to identify and satisfy consumer preferences. Coca-Cola FEMSA competes by seeking to offer products at an attractive price in the different segments in its markets and by building on the value of its brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that the introduction of new products and new presentations has been a significant competitive technique that allows it to increase demand for its products, provide different options to consumers and increase new consumption opportunities. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Coca-Cola FEMSA—Product and Packaging Mix.”

Mexico and Central America . Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitors in Mexico are bottlers of Pepsi products, whose territories overlap but are not co-extensive with its own. Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with Organización Cultiba, S.A.B. de C.V., a joint venture formed by Grupo Embotelladoras Unidas, S.A.B. de C.V., the former Pepsi bottler in central and southeast Mexico, a subsidiary of PepsiCo, and Empresas Polar, S.A., the leading beer distributor and Pepsi bottler in Venezuela. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competition in the juice category in Mexico is Grupo Jumex. In the water category, Bonafont, a water brand owned by Grupo Danone, is Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competition. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with Cadbury Schweppes in sparkling beverages and with other local brands in its Mexican territories, as well as “B brand” producers, such as Ajemex, S.A. de C.V. and Consorcio AGA, S.A. de C.V., that offer various presentations of sparkling and still beverages.

In the countries that comprise Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Central America region, its main competitors are Pepsi and Big Cola bottlers. In Guatemala and Nicaragua, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with a joint venture between AmBev and The Central American Bottler Corporation. In Costa Rica, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitor is Florida Bebidas S.A., subsidiary of Florida Ice and Farm Co. In Panama, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competitor is Cervecería Nacional, S.A. Coca-Cola FEMSA also faces competition from “B brands” offering multiple serving size presentations in some Central American countries.

South America (excluding Venezuela) . Coca-Cola FEMSA’s principal competitor in Colombia is Postobón, a well-established local bottler that sells flavored sparkling beverages (under the brands Postobón and Colombiana ), some of which have a wide consumption preference, such as manzana Postobón (apple Postobón), which is the second most popular flavor in the Colombian sparkling beverage industry in terms of total sales volume. Postobón also sells Pepsi products. Postobón is a vertically integrated producer, the owners of which hold other significant commercial interests in Colombia. Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes with low-price producers, such as the producers of Big Cola, which principally offer multiple serving size presentations in the sparkling and still beverage industry.

 

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In Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes against AmBev, a Brazilian company with a portfolio of brands that includes Pepsi, local brands with flavors such as guarana, and proprietary beer brands. Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes against “B brands” or “Tubainas,” which are small, local producers of low-cost flavored sparkling beverages that represent a significant portion of the sparkling beverage market.

In Argentina, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competitor is Buenos Aires Embotellador S.A. (“BAESA”), a Pepsi bottler, which is owned by Argentina’s principal brewery, Quilmes Industrial S.A., and indirectly controlled by AmBev. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA competes with a number of competitors offering generic, low-priced sparkling beverages as well as many other generic products and private label proprietary supermarket brands.

Venezuela. In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main competitor is Pepsi-Cola Venezuela, C.A., a joint venture formed between PepsiCo and Empresas Polar, S.A., the leading beer distributor in the country. Coca-Cola FEMSA also competes with the producers of Big Cola in part of this country.

Raw Materials

Pursuant to its bottler agreements, Coca-Cola FEMSA is authorized to manufacture, sell and distribute Coca-Cola trademark beverages within specific geographic areas, and Coca-Cola FEMSA is required to purchase concentrate for all Coca-Cola trademark beverages in all of its territories from companies designated by The Coca-Cola Company and sweeteners and other raw materials from companies authorized by The Coca-Cola Company. Concentrate prices for Coca-Cola trademark beverages are determined as a percentage of the weighted average retail price in local currency net of applicable taxes. Although The Coca-Cola Company has the right to unilaterally set the price of concentrates, in practice this percentage has historically been set pursuant to periodic negotiations with The Coca-Cola Company.

In the past, The Coca-Cola Company has increased concentrate prices for Coca-Cola trademark beverages in some of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. In 2014, The Coca-Cola Company informed Coca-Cola FEMSA that it will gradually increase concentrate prices for certain Coca-Cola trademark beverages over a five-year period in Costa Rica and Panama beginning in 2014. In 2015, The Coca-Cola Company informed Coca-Cola FEMSA that it will gradually increase concentrate prices for flavored water over a four-year period in Mexico beginning in April 2015. Most recently, The Coca-Cola Company also informed Coca-Cola FEMSA that it will gradually increase concentrate prices for certain Coca-Cola trademark beverages over a two-year period in Colombia beginning in 2016. Based on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s estimates, it currently does not expect these increases to have a material adverse effect on its results of operation. The Coca-Cola Company may unilaterally increase concentrate prices again in the future and Coca-Cola FEMSA may not be successful in negotiating or implementing measures to mitigate the negative effect this may have in the prices of its products or its results.

In addition to concentrate, Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases sweeteners, carbon dioxide, resin and preforms to make plastic bottles, finished plastic and glass bottles, cans, caps and fountain containers, as well as other packaging materials and raw materials. Sweeteners are combined with water to produce basic syrup, which is added to the concentrate as the sweetener for most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s beverages. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottler agreements provide that, with respect to Coca-Cola trademark beverages, these materials may be purchased only from suppliers approved by The Coca-Cola Company, including certain of our affiliates. Prices for certain raw materials, including those used in the bottling of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, mainly resin, preforms to make plastic bottles, finished plastic bottles, aluminum cans, HFCS and certain sweeteners, are paid in or determined with reference to the U.S. dollar, and therefore local prices in a particular country may increase based on changes in the applicable exchange rates. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s most significant packaging raw material costs arise from the purchase of resin and plastic preforms to make plastic bottles from the purchase of finished plastic bottles, the prices of which are related to crude oil prices and global resin supply. The average prices that Coca-Cola FEMSA paid for resin and plastic preforms in U.S. dollars in 2015 decreased 24%, as compared to 2014, in all its territories; however, given that high currency volatility has affected and continues to affect most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, the average prices for resin and plastic preforms in local currencies were higher in 2015 in Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil.

 

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Under Coca-Cola FEMSA’s agreements with The Coca-Cola Company, it may use raw or refined sugar or HFCS as sweeteners in its products. Sugar prices in all of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, other than Brazil, are subject to local regulations and other barriers to market entry that cause Coca-Cola FEMSA to pay for sugar in excess of international market prices for sugar in certain countries. In recent years, international sugar prices experienced significant volatility. Across Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, its average price for sugar in U.S. dollars decreased approximately 28% (12% excluding Venezuela) in 2015 as compared to 2014; however, the average price for sugar in local currency was higher in all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations, except for Guatemala.

Coca-Cola FEMSA categorizes water as a raw material in its business. Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water for the production of some of its natural spring water products, such as Manantial in Colombia and Crystal in Brazil, from spring water pursuant to concessions granted.

None of the materials or supplies that Coca-Cola FEMSA uses is presently in short supply, although the supply of specific materials could be adversely affected by strikes, weather conditions, governmental controls, national emergency situations, water shortages or the failure to maintain its existing water concessions.

Mexico and Central America. In Mexico, Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases its returnable plastic bottles from Graham Packaging México, S.A. de C.V., known as Graham, which is the exclusive supplier of returnable plastic bottles for The Coca-Cola Company and its bottlers in Mexico. Coca-Cola FEMSA mainly purchases resin from Indorama Ventures Polymers México, S. de R.L. de C.V. (formerly Arteva Specialties, S. de R.L. de C.V.), M&G Polímeros México, S.A. de C.V. and DAK Resinas Americas Mexico, S.A. de C.V., which Alpla México, S.A. de C.V., known as Alpla, and Envases Universales de México, S.A.P.I. de C.V. manufacture into non-returnable plastic bottles for Coca-Cola FEMSA. Also, Coca-Cola FEMSA has introduced into its business Asian global suppliers, such as Far Eastern New Century Corp. or FENC, which supports Coca-Cola FEMSA’s PET strategy mainly for Central America and is known as one of the top five PET global suppliers.

Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases all its cans from Fábricas de Monterrey, S.A. de C.V., or FAMOSA, and Envases Universales de México, S.A.P.I. de C.V., through Promotora Mexicana de Embotelladoras, S.A. de C.V., known as PROMESA, a cooperative of Coca-Cola bottlers, in which, as of April 8, 2016, Coca-Cola FEMSA held a 35% equity interest. Coca-Cola FEMSA mainly purchases its glass bottles from Vitro America, S. de R.L. de C.V. (formerly Compañía Vidriera, S.A. de C.V., or VITRO), FEVISA Industrial, S.A. de C.V., known as FEVISA, and Glass & Silice, S.A. de C.V., or SIVESA.

Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases sugar from, among other suppliers, PIASA and Beta San Miguel, S.A. de C.V., both sugar cane producers in which, as of April 8, 2016, Coca-Cola FEMSA held a 36.3% and 2.7% equity interest, respectively. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases HFCS from Ingredion México, S.A. de C.V., Almidones Mexicanos, S.A. de C.V., known as Almex, and Cargill de México, S.A. de C.V.

Sugar prices in Mexico are subject to local regulations and other barriers to market entry that cause Coca-Cola FEMSA to pay higher prices than those paid in the international market. As a result, prices in Mexico have no correlation to international market prices. In 2015, sugar prices in local currency in Mexico increased approximately 9% as compared to 2014.

In Central America, the majority of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s raw materials such as glass and plastic bottles are purchased from several local suppliers. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases all of its cans from PROMESA. Sugar is available from suppliers that represent several local producers. In Costa Rica, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires plastic non-returnable bottles from Alpla C.R. S.A., and in Nicaragua Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires such plastic bottles from Alpla Nicaragua, S.A.

South America (excluding Venezuela). In Colombia, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses sugar as a sweetener in most of its products, which it buys from several domestic sources. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases plastic bottles from Amcor Rigid Plastics de Colombia, S.A. and Tapón Corona de Colombia S.A. (affiliate of Envases Universales de México, S.A.P.I. de C.V.), and has historically purchased all of its glass bottles from Peldar O-I; however, it has engaged new suppliers and has recently acquired glass bottles from Al Tajir and Frigoglass in both cases from the United Arab Emirates. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases all of its cans from Crown Colombiana, S.A., which are only available through this local supplier. Grupo Ardila Lulle, owners of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s competitor Postobón, own a minority equity interest in Peldar O-I and Crown Colombiana, S.A.

 

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Sugar is available in Brazil at local market prices, which historically have been similar to international prices. During 2015, sugar prices in Brazil decreased approximately 12% in U.S. dollars and increased 26% in local currency, as compared to 2014. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases glass bottles, plastic bottles and cans from several domestic and international suppliers.

In Argentina, Coca-Cola FEMSA mainly uses HFCS that it purchases from several different local suppliers as a sweetener in its products. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases glass bottles, plastic cases and other raw materials from several domestic sources. Coca-Cola FEMSA purchases plastic preforms, as well as returnable plastic bottles, at competitive prices from Andina Empaques S.A., a local subsidiary of Embotelladora Andina S.A., a Coca-Cola bottler with operations in Chile, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, and other local suppliers. Coca-Cola FEMSA also acquires plastic preforms from Alpla Avellaneda, S.A. and other suppliers, such as AMCOR Argentina.

Venezuela. In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses sugar as a sweetener in most of its products, which it purchase mainly from the local market. Since 2003, from time to time, Coca-Cola FEMSA has experienced a sugar shortage due to lower domestic production and the inability of the predominant sugar importers to obtain permission to import in a timely manner. While sugar distribution to the food and beverages industry and to retailers is controlled by the government, Coca-Cola FEMSA did not experience any material disruptions during 2015 with respect to access to sufficient sugar supply. However, we cannot assure you that Coca-Cola FEMSA will not experience disruptions in its ability to meet its sugar requirements in the future should the Venezuelan government impose restrictive measures. Coca-Cola FEMSA buys glass bottles from one local supplier, Productos de Vidrio, C.A., the only supplier authorized by The Coca-Cola Company. Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires most of its plastic non-returnable bottles from Alpla de Venezuela, S.A. and most of its aluminum cans from a local producer, Dominguez Continental, C.A.

Under current regulations promulgated by the Venezuelan authorities, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s ability and that of its suppliers to import some of the raw materials and other supplies used in its production could be limited, and access to the official exchange rate for these items, including, among others, concentrate, resin, aluminum, plastic caps, distribution trucks and vehicles is only achieved by obtaining proper approvals from the relevant authorities.

FEMSA Comercio

Overview and Background

FEMSA Comercio, through its Retail Division, operates the largest chain of small-format stores in Mexico, measured in terms of number of stores as of December 31, 2015, mainly under the trade name “OXXO.” As of December 31, 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division operated 14,061 OXXO stores, of which 14,015 are located throughout Mexico and the remaining 46 stores are located in Bogota, Colombia.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division was established by FEMSA in 1978 with the opening of two OXXO stores in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, one store in Mexico City and another store in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The motivating factor behind FEMSA’s entrance into the retail industry was to enhance beer sales through company-owned retail outlets as well as to gather information on customer preferences. In 2015, a typical OXXO store carried 2,954 different stock keeping units (SKUs) in 31 main product categories.

In recent years, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has represented an effective distribution channel for our beverage products, as well as a rapidly growing point of contact with our consumers. Based on the belief that location plays a major role in the long-term success of a retail operation such as a small-format store, as well as a role in our ability to accelerate and streamline the new-store development process, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has focused on a strategy of rapid, profitable growth. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division opened 1,208, 1,132 and 1,120 net new OXXO stores in 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively. The accelerated expansion in the number of OXXO stores and the inorganic expansion in the drugstore markets in Mexico and Chile yielded total revenue growth of 21.2% to reach Ps. 132,891 million in 2015. OXXO same-store sales increased an average of 6.9%, driven by an increased average customer ticket and an increase in same-store traffic. OXXO stores performed approximately 3.7 billion transactions in 2015 compared to 3.4 billion transactions in 2014.

 

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FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division operates retail service stations for fuels, motor oils and other car care products. As of December 31, 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division operates 307 service stations, concentrating mainly in the northern part of the country with a presence in 14 different states throughout Mexico.

Since 1995, FEMSA Comercio has provided services and operated retail service stations for fuels, motor oils and other car care products through agreements with third parties that own PEMEX franchises, using the commercial brand “OXXO GAS.” Over time, this brand has become synonymous with quality service among our customers, and revenues per gas pump have consistently grown.

Historically, Mexican legislation precluded FEMSA Comercio from participating in the retail of gasoline, and therefore from owning PEMEX franchises, due to FEMSA’s foreign institutional investor base. In March 2015, following changes to the legal framework and considering the potential expansion and synergies arising from this business as part of Mexico’s energy reform, FEMSA Comercio began to acquire PEMEX’s service station franchises and to obtain permits to operate each of the franchises.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

Business Strategy

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division intends to continue increasing its store base while capitalizing on the retail business and market knowledge gained at existing stores. We intend to open new stores in locations where we believe there is high growth potential or unsatisfied demand, while also increasing customer traffic and average ticket per customer in existing stores. Our expansion focuses on both entering new markets and strengthening our presence nationwide and across different income levels of population. A fundamental element of FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business strategy is to leverage its retail store formats, know-how, technology and operational practices to continue growing in a cost-effective and profitable manner. This scalable business platform is expected to provide a strong foundation for continued organic growth, improving traffic and average ticket sales at our existing stores and facilitating entry into new small-format retail industries.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has developed proprietary models to assist in identifying appropriate store locations, store formats and product categories. These models utilize location-specific demographic data and FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s experience in similar locations to fine-tune the store formats, product price ranges and product offerings to the target market. Market segmentation is becoming an important strategic tool that is expected to allow FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division to improve the operating efficiency of each location, cover a wider array of consumption occasions and increase its overall profitability.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division continues to improve its information gathering and processing systems to allow it to connect with its customers at all levels and anticipate and respond efficiently to their changing demands and preferences. Most of the products carried through OXXO stores are bar-coded, and all OXXO stores are equipped with point-of-sale systems integrated into a company-wide computer network. To implement more effective business strategies, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division created a department in charge of product category management, for products such as beverages, fast food and perishables, responsible for analyzing data gathered to better understand our customers, develop integrated marketing plans and allocate resources more efficiently. This department utilizes a technology platform supported by an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system, as well as other technological solutions such as merchandising and point-of-sale systems, which allow FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division to redesign and adjust its key operating processes and certain related business decisions. Our IT system also allows us to manage each store’s working capital, inventories and investments in a cost-effective way while maintaining high sales volume and store quality. Supported by continued investments in IT, our supply chain network allows us to optimize working capital requirements through inventory rotation and reduction, reducing out-of-stock days and other inventory costs.

 

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FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has adopted innovative promotional strategies in order to increase store traffic and sales. In particular, the OXXO stores sell high-frequency items such as beverages, snacks and cigarettes at competitive prices. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s ability to implement this strategy profitably is partly attributable to the size of the OXXO stores chain, as such division is able to work together with its suppliers to implement their revenue-management strategies through differentiated promotions. OXXO stores’ national and local marketing and promotional strategies are an effective revenue driver and a means of reaching new segments of the population while strengthening the OXXO brand. For example, the organization has refined its expertise in executing cross promotions (discounts on multi-packs or sales of complementary products at a special price) and targeted promotions to attract new customer segments by expanding the offerings in the grocery product category in certain stores.

Another fundamental element of our strategy consists of leveraging our reputation for quality and the position of our brand in the minds of our customers to expand our offering of private-label products. Our private-label products represent an alternative for value-conscious consumers, which, combined with our market position, allows FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division to increase sales and margins, strengthen customer loyalty and bolster its bargaining position with suppliers.

Finally, to further increase customer traffic into our stores, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division is incorporating additional services, such as utility bill payment, remittances and prepayment of mobile phone fees and charges.

 

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Store Locations

With 14,015 OXXO stores in Mexico and 46 OXXO stores in Colombia as of December 31, 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division operates the largest small-format store chain in Latin America measured by number of stores. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has expanded its operations by opening five net new OXXO stores in Bogota, Colombia in 2015.

OXXO Stores

Regional Allocation in Mexico and Latin America (*)

as of December 31, 2015

 

LOGO

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has aggressively expanded its number of OXXO stores over the past several years. The average investment required to open a new OXXO store varies, depending on location and format and whether the store is opened in an existing retail location or requires construction of a new store. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division is generally able to use supplier credit to fund the initial inventory of new OXXO stores.

 

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OXXO Stores

Total Growth

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015     2014     2013     2012     2011  

Total OXXO stores

     14,061        12,853        11,721        10,601        9,561   

Store growth (% change over previous year)

     9.4     9.7     10.6     10.9     13.5

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division currently expects to continue implementing its expansion strategy by emphasizing growth in areas of high economic potential in existing markets and by expanding in underserved and unexploited markets.

Most of the OXXO stores are operated under lease agreements, which are denominated in Mexican peso and adjusted annually to an inflation index. This approach provides FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division the flexibility to adjust locations as cities grow and effectively adjust its footprint based on stores’ performance.

The identification of locations and pre-opening planning in order to optimize the results of new OXXO stores are important elements in FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s growth plan. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division continuously reviews store performance against certain operating and financial benchmarks to optimize the overall performance of the chain. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division stores unable to maintain benchmark standards are generally closed. Between December 31, 2011 and 2015, the total number of OXXO stores increased by 4,500, which resulted from the opening of 4,638 new stores and the closing of 138 stores.

Competition

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division, mainly through OXXO stores, competes in the overall retail market, which we believe is highly competitive. OXXO stores face competition from small-format stores like 7-Eleven, Extra, Super City, Círculo K stores and other numerous chains of retailers across Mexico, from other regional small-format retailers to small informal neighborhood stores. OXXO competes both for consumers and for new locations for stores and human resources to operate those stores. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division operates in each state in Mexico and has much broader geographic coverage than any of its competitors in Mexico.

Market and Store Characteristics

Market Characteristics

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division is placing increased emphasis on market segmentation and differentiation of store formats to more appropriately serve the needs of customers on a location-by-location basis. The principal segments include residential neighborhoods, commercial and office locations and stores near schools and universities, along with other types of specialized locations.

Approximately 65.6% of OXXO stores’ customers are between the ages of 15 and 35. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division also segments the market according to demographic criteria, including income level.

OXXO Store Characteristics

The average size of an OXXO store is approximately 104 square meters of selling space, excluding space dedicated to refrigeration, storage or parking. The average constructed area of a store is approximately 187 square meters and, when parking areas are included, the average store size is approximately 418 square meters.

 

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FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division —Operating Indicators

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015     2014     2013     2012     2011  
    

(percentage increase compared to

previous year)

 

Total FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division revenues (1)

     21.2     12.4     12.9     16.6     19.0

OXXO same-store sales (2)

     6.9     2.7     2.4     7.7     9.2

 

(1) Includes revenues of Farmacias Farmacon S.A. from June 2015 and Socofar from October 2015. See “Item 4. Information on the Company—Corporate Background” and Note 4 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

(2) Same-store sales growth is calculated by comparing the sales of stores for each year that have been in operation for more than 12 months with the sales of those same stores during the previous year.

Beer, cigarettes, soft drinks and other beverages and snacks represent the main product categories for OXXO stores. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has a distribution agreement with Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma, pursuant to which OXXO stores only carry beer brands produced and distributed by Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma. OXXO stores will continue to benefit from the existing relationship under which Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma will continue to be the exclusive supplier of beer to OXXO until June 2020.

Approximately 58% of OXXO stores are operated by independent managers responsible for all aspects of store operations. The store managers are commission agents and are not employees of FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division. Each store manager is the legal employer of the store’s staff, which typically numbers six people per store. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division continually invests in on-site operating personnel, with the objective of promoting loyalty, customer service and low personnel turnover in the stores.

Advertising and Promotion

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s marketing efforts for OXXO stores include both specific product promotions and image advertising campaigns. These strategies seek to increase store traffic and sales, and to reinforce the OXXO name and market position.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division manages its advertising for OXXO stores on three levels depending on the nature and scope of the specific campaign: local or store-specific, regional and national. Store-specific and regional campaigns are closely monitored to ensure consistency with the overall corporate image of OXXO stores and to avoid conflicts with national campaigns. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division primarily uses point of purchase materials, flyers, handbills and print and radio media for promotional campaigns, although television is used occasionally for the introduction of new products and services. The OXXO store chain’s image and brand name are presented consistently across all stores, irrespective of location.

Inventory and Purchasing

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has placed considerable emphasis on improving operating performance. As part of these efforts, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division continues to invest in extensive information management systems to improve inventory management. Electronic data collection has enabled this division to reduce average inventory levels. Inventory replenishment decisions are carried out on a store-by-store basis.

Management believes that the OXXO store chain’s scale of operations provides FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division with a competitive advantage in its ability to realize strategic alliances with suppliers. General category offerings are determined on a national level, although purchasing decisions are implemented on a local, regional or national level, depending on the nature of the product category. Given the fragmented nature of the retail industry in Mexico in general, Mexican producers of beer, soft drinks, bread, dairy products, snacks, cigarettes and other high-frequency products have established proprietary distribution systems with extensive direct distribution routes. As a result, approximately 62% of the OXXO store chain’s total sales consist of products that are

 

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delivered directly to the stores by suppliers. Other products with longer shelf lives are distributed to stores by FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s distribution system, which includes 16 regional warehouses located in Monterrey, Guadalajara, Mexicali, Merida, Leon, Obregon, Puebla, Queretaro, Chihuahua, Reynosa, Saltillo, Tijuana, Toluca, Villahermosa and two in Mexico City. The distribution centers operate a fleet of approximately 897 trucks that make deliveries to each store approximately twice per week.

Seasonality

OXXO stores experience periods of high demand in December, as a result of the holidays, and in July and August, as a result of increased consumption of beer and soft drinks during the hot summer months. The months of November and February are generally the weakest sales months for OXXO stores. In general, colder weather during these months reduces store traffic and consumption of cold beverages.

Drugstore Market

During 2013, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division entered the drugstore market in Mexico through two transactions. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division through CCF, closed the acquisition of Farmacias YZA, a leading drugstore operator in Southeast Mexico, headquartered in Merida, Yucatan. The founding shareholders of Farmacias YZA hold a 25% stake in CCF. Following this transaction, on May 13, 2013, CCF acquired Farmacias Moderna, a leading drugstore operator in the western state of Sinaloa.

In June 2015, CCF acquired 100% of Farmacias Farmacon, a regional pharmacy chain consisting at the time of more than 200 stores in the northwestern Mexican states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Baja California and Baja California Sur.

In September 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division acquired 60% of Socofar, a leading South American drugstore operator based in Santiago, Chile. Socofar operated, directly and through franchises, at that time, more than 600 drugstores and 150 beauty stores throughout Chile and 150 drugstores throughout Colombia.

The rationale for entering this new market is anchored in our belief that FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has developed certain capabilities and skills that should be applicable and useful in the operation of other small retail formats. These capabilities include site selection, logistics, business processes, human resources, inventory and supplier management. The drugstore market in Mexico is very fragmented and FEMSA Comercio believes it is well equipped to create value by entering this market and pursuing a growth strategy that maximizes the opportunity. Furthermore, the acquisition in South America gives FEMSA Comercio the opportunity to pursue a regional strategy from a solid platform anchored in the Chilean market and with compelling growth opportunities in Colombia and beyond.

Quick-Service Restaurant Market

Following the same rationale that its capabilities and skills are well suited to different types of small-format retail, during 2013 FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division also entered the quick-service restaurant market in Mexico through the 80% acquisition of Doña Tota, with the founding shareholders retaining 20%. This is a leading regional chain specializing in Mexican food with a particularly strong presence in the northeast of the country. This acquisition presented FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division with the opportunity to grow Doña Tota’s stand-alone store base across the country, as well as the possibility to acquire prepared food capabilities and expertise.

Other Stores

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division also operates other small-format stores, which include soft discount stores with a focus on perishables and liquor stores.

 

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FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

Business Strategy

A fundamental element of FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business strategy is to increase at an accelerated rate its offering of service stations, in previously identified Mexican regions, by way of leases, procurement or construction of stations.

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business strategy aims to strengthen its services in its retail gas stations in Mexico to fulfill consumers’ needs and increase traffic in those service stations it operates while developing and maintaining an attractive value proposition to draw potential customers and face the future entry of new competitors in the industry.

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business strategy includes the development of new businesses in the fuel value chain, such as the final distribution and wholesale of fuel to its own service stations and to third parties.

Service Station Locations and Characteristics

As of December 31, 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division operates 307 service stations, concentrated mainly in the northern part of the country but with a presence in 14 different states throughout Mexico.

Since March 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division has leased 76 additional service stations and built four brand new service stations.

Each service station under the “OXXO GAS” trade name comprises offices, parking lots, maneuvering vehicles area, a fuel service dispatch area and an area for storage of gasoline in underground tanks. The average size of the fuel service dispatch area is 250 square meters. On average each service station has 15 employees.

Products and Services

Gasoline, diesel, oil and additives are the main products sold at OXXO GAS’ service stations.

Past law restrictions prevented FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division, as a franchisee of PEMEX, to have a different supplier of gasoline. However, the current law allows other suppliers to operate in Mexico in the medium term.

Market Characteristics

The retail service station market in Mexico is highly fragmented. There are currently more than 11,000 service stations; however, with less than 3% of the total number of stations, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division is the largest participant in this market. The majority of retail service stations in the country are owned by small regional family businesses.

Seasonality

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division experiences especially high demand during May and August. The lowest demand is in January and December due to the rainy season and the year-end holiday period, because many service stations are not located in, or on highways to, holiday destinations.

Marketing

Through promotional activities, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division seeks to provide additional value to customers by offering, along with gasoline, oils and additives, quality products and services at affordable prices. The best tool for communicating these promotions has been coupon promotions in partnership with third parties, a form of advertising now also used by FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s competitors.

 

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Competition

Despite the existence of other groups competing in this sector, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s competitors are small retail service stations chains owned by regional family businesses, which compete in the aggregate with FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division in total sales, new station locations and labor. The biggest chains competing with FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division in terms of number of service stations are Petro-7, operated by 7-Eleven; Corpo Gas; Hidrosina and Orsan.

Equity Investment in the Heineken Group

As of December 31, 2015, FEMSA owned a non-controlling interest in the Heineken Group, one of the world’s leading brewers. As of December 31, 2015, our 20% economic interest in the Heineken Group comprised 43,018,320 shares of Heineken Holding N.V. and 72,182,203 shares of Heineken N.V. For 2015, FEMSA recognized equity income of Ps. 5,879 million regarding its 20% economic interest in the Heineken Group; see Note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

As described above, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has a distribution agreement with subsidiaries of Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma, now a part of the Heineken Group, pursuant to which OXXO stores in Mexico only carry beer brands produced and distributed by Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma. OXXO stores will continue to benefit from the existing relationship under which Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma will continue to be the exclusive supplier of beer to OXXO until June 2020. Coca-Cola FEMSA also agreed with Cervejarias Kaiser (also now part of the Heineken Group) to continue to distribute and sell the Kaiser beer portfolio in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian territories for a 20-year term beginning in 2003, consistent with the arrangement already in place. In addition, our logistic services subsidiary provides certain services to Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma and its subsidiaries.

Other Businesses

Our other businesses consist of the following smaller operations that support our core operations:

 

   

Our logistics services subsidiary provides a broad range of logistics and vehicle maintenance services to Coca-Cola FEMSA, FEMSA Comercio and third-party clients in the beverages, consumer products and retail industries. It has operations in Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua and Peru.

 

   

Our refrigeration business produces vertical and horizontal commercial refrigerators for the soft drink, beer and food industries, with an annual capacity of 546,934 units at December 31, 2015. In 2015, this business sold 429,464 refrigeration units, 31.1% of which were sold to Coca-Cola FEMSA, and the remainder of which were sold to other clients.

Description of Property, Plant and Equipment

As of December 31, 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA owned all of its manufacturing facilities and distribution centers, consisting primarily of production and distribution facilities for its soft drink operations and office space. In addition, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division owns approximately 12% of the OXXO store locations, while the other stores are located in leased properties and substantially almost all of its warehouses are under long-term lease arrangements with third parties.

 

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The table below summarizes by country the installed capacity and percentage utilization of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production facilities:

Bottling Facility Summary

As of December 31, 2015

 

Country

   Installed Capacity      Utilization (1)  
   (thousands of unit cases)      (%)  

Mexico

     2,786,295         62

Guatemala

     37,931         77

Nicaragua

     66,847         71

Costa Rica

     70,587         66

Panama

     49,646         69

Colombia

     572,978         57

Venezuela

     290,391         81

Brazil

     1,228,126         55

Argentina

     328,441         71

 

(1) Annualized rate.

The table below summarizes by country the location and facility area of each of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production facilities.

Bottling Facility by Location

As of December 31, 2015

 

Country

  

Plant

   Facility Area  
         

(thousands

of sq. meters)

 

Mexico

  

San Cristobal de las Casas, Chiapas

     45   
  

Cuautitlan, Estado de Mexico

     35   
  

Los Reyes la Paz, Estado de Mexico

     50   
  

Toluca, Estado de Mexico

     317   
  

Leon, Guanajuato

     124   
  

Morelia, Michoacan

     50   
  

Ixtacomitan, Tabasco

     117   
  

Apizaco, Tlaxcala

     80   
  

Coatepec, Veracruz

     142   
  

La Pureza Altamira, Tamaulipas

     300   
  

Poza Rica, Veracruz

     42   
  

Pacifico, Estado de Mexico

     89   
  

Cuernavaca, Morelos

     37   
  

Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Ojuelos)

     41   
  

San Juan del Rio, Queretaro

     84   
  

Queretaro, Queretaro

     80   
  

Cayaco, Acapulco

     104   

Guatemala

  

Guatemala City

     46   

Nicaragua

  

Managua

     54   

Costa Rica

  

Calle Blancos, San Jose

     52   
  

Coronado, San Jose

     14   

 

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Country

  

Plant

   Facility Area  
         

(thousands

of sq. meters)

 

Panama

  

Panama City

     29   

Colombia

  

Barranquilla

     37   
  

Bogota, DC

     105   
  

Bucaramanga

     26   
  

Cali

     76   
  

Manantial, Cundinamarca

     67   
  

Tocancipa

     298   
  

Medellin

     47   

Venezuela

  

Antimano

     15   
  

Barcelona

     141   
  

Maracaibo

     68   
  

Valencia

     100   

Brazil

  

Campo Grande

     36   
  

Jundiai

     191   
  

Mogi das Cruzes

     119   
  

Porto Real

     108   
  

Maringa

     160   
  

Marilia

     159   
  

Curitiba

     119   
  

Bauru

     39   
  

Itabirito

     320   

Argentina

  

Alcorta, Buenos Aires

     73   
  

Monte Grande, Buenos Aires

     32   

Insurance

We maintain an “all risk” insurance policy covering our properties (owned and leased), machinery and equipment and inventories as well as losses due to business interruptions. The policy covers damages caused by natural disaster, including hurricane, hail, earthquake and damages caused by human acts, including explosion, fire, vandalism and riot. We also maintain a freight transport insurance policy that covers damages to goods in transit. In addition, we maintain a liability insurance policy that covers product liability. We purchase our insurance coverage through an insurance broker. In 2015, the policies for “all risk” property insurance and liability insurance were issued by Mapfre Tepeyac Seguros, S.A., and the policy for freight transport insurance was issued by ACE Seguros, S.A. Our “all risk” coverage was partially reinsured in the international reinsurance market. We believe that our coverage is consistent with the coverage maintained by similar companies.

 

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Capital Expenditures and Divestitures

Our consolidated capital expenditures, net of disposals, for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 were Ps. 18,885 million, Ps. 18,163 million and Ps. 17,882 million respectively, and were for the most part financed from cash from operations generated by our subsidiaries. These amounts were invested in the following manner:

 

     Year Ended December 31,  
     2015      2014      2013  
     (in millions of Mexican pesos)  

Coca-Cola FEMSA

     Ps.11,484         Ps.11,313         Ps.11,703   

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

     6,048         5,191         5,683   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

     228         —           —     

Other

     1,125         1,659         496   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

     Ps.18,885         Ps.18,163         Ps.17,882   

Coca-Cola FEMSA

In 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA focused its capital expenditures on investments in (i) increasing production capacity, (ii) placing coolers with retailers, (iii) returnable bottles and cases, (iv) improving the efficiency of its distribution infrastructure and (v) information technology. Through these measures, Coca-Cola FEMSA continuously seeks to improve its profit margins and overall profitability.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s principal investment activity is the construction and opening of new stores, which are mostly OXXO Stores. During 2015, FEMSA Comercio opened 1,208 net new OXXO stores. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division invested Ps. 6,048 million in 2015 in the addition of new stores, warehouses and improvements to leased properties.

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

In 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s business addressed its investments on capital expenditure mainly to the addition of new retail service stations. Since March 2015, FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division has leased and enhanced 76 additional retail stations and built four brand new stations, investing Ps. 228 million during 2015.

Regulatory Matters

Antitrust Legislation

The Ley Federal de Competencia Económica (Federal Antitrust Law) became effective on June 22, 1993, regulating monopolistic practices and requiring Mexican government approval of certain mergers and acquisitions. The Federal Antitrust Law subjects the activities of certain Mexican companies, including us, to regulatory scrutiny.

In June 2013, following a comprehensive reform to the Mexican Constitution, a new antitrust authority with constitutional autonomy was created: the Comisión Federal de Competencia Económica (Federal Antitrust Commission, or the COFECE). As a result of these amendments, new antitrust and telecommunications specialized courts were created and commenced hearing cases in August 2013. In July 2014, a new Federal Antitrust Law came into effect based on the amended constitutional provisions.

These amendments granted more power to the COFECE, including the ability to regulate essential facilities, order the divestment of assets and eliminate barriers to competition, set higher fines for violations of the Federal Antitrust Law, implement important changes to rules governing mergers and anti-competitive behavior and limit the availability of legal defenses against the application of the law. Management believes that we are currently in compliance in all material respects with Mexican antitrust legislation.

 

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In Mexico, we are involved in different ongoing competition related proceedings. We believe that the outcome of these proceedings will not have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results. See “Item 8. Financial Information—Legal Proceedings—Coca-Cola FEMSA.”

Mexican Tax Reform

In December of 2013, the Mexican government enacted a package of tax reforms (the “2014 Tax Reform”) which includes several significant changes to tax laws, discussed in further detail below, that entered into effect on January 1, 2014. The most significant changes are as follows:

 

   

The introduction of a new withholding tax at the rate of 10% for dividends and/or distributions of earnings generated in 2014 and beyond;

 

   

The elimination of the exemption on gains from the sale of shares through a stock exchange recognized under applicable Mexican tax law. The gain will be taxable at the rate of 10% and will be paid by the shareholder based on the information provided by the financial intermediary. Transferors that are residents of a country with which Mexico has entered into a tax treaty for the avoidance of double taxation will be exempt;

 

   

A fee of one Mexican peso per liter on the sale and import of flavored beverages with added sugar, and an excise tax of 8% on food with caloric content equal to, or greater than 275 kilocalories per 100 grams of product;

 

   

The prior 11% value added tax (VAT) rate that applied to transaction in the border region was raised to 16%, matching the general VAT rate applicable in the rest of Mexico;

 

   

The elimination of the tax on cash deposits (IDE) and the business flat tax (IETU);

 

   

Deductions on exempt payroll items for workers are limited to 53%;

 

   

The income tax rate in 2013 and 2012 was 30%. Scheduled decreases to the income tax rate that would have reduced the rate to 29% in 2014 and 28% in 2015 and thereafter, were canceled in connection with the 2014 Tax Reform;

 

   

The repeal of the existing tax consolidation regime, which is effective as of January 1, 2014, modified the payment term of a tax on assets payable of Ps. 180, which will be paid over the following five years instead of an indefinite term; and

 

   

The introduction of a new optional tax integration regime (a modified form of tax consolidation), which replaces the previous tax consolidation regime. The new optional tax integration regime requires an equity ownership of at least 80% for qualifying subsidiaries and would allow us to defer the annual tax payment of our profitable participating subsidiaries for a period equivalent to 3 years to the extent their individual tax expense exceeds the integrated tax expense of the Company.

Other Recent Tax Reforms

On January 1, 2015, a general tax reform became effective in Colombia. This reform included the imposition of a new temporary tax on net equity through 2017 to Colombian residents and non-residents who own property in Colombia directly or indirectly through branches or permanent establishments. The relevant taxable base will be determined annually based on a formula. For net equity that exceeds 5.0 billion Colombian pesos (approximately US$ 2.1 million) the rate will be 1.15% in 2015, 1.00% in 2016 and 0.40% in 2017. In addition, the tax reform in Colombia imposed that the supplementary income tax at a rate of 9% as contributions to social programs, which was previously scheduled to decrease to 8% by 2015, will remain indefinitely. Additionally, this tax reform included the imposition of a temporary contribution to social programs at a rate of 5%, 6%, 8% and

 

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9% for the years 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, respectively. Finally, this reform establishes an income tax deduction of 2% of value-added tax paid in the acquisition or import of hard assets, such as tangible and amortizable assets that are not sold or transferred in the ordinary course of business and that are used for the production of goods or services.

In Guatemala, the income tax rate for 2014 was 28% and it decreased for 2015 to 25%, as scheduled.

On November 18, 2014, a tax reform became effective in Venezuela. This reform included changes on how the carrying value of operating losses is reported. The reform established that operating losses carried forward year over year (but limited to three fiscal years) may not exceed 25% of the taxable income in the relevant period. The reform also eliminated the possibility to carry over losses relating to inflationary adjustments and included changes that grant Venezuelan tax authorities broader powers and authority in connection with their ability to enact administrative rulings related to income tax withholding and to collect taxes and increase fines and penalties for tax-related violations, including the ability to confiscate assets without a court order.

On December 30, 2015, the Venezuelan government enacted a package of tax reforms that became effective in January 2016. This reform, among other things, (i) eliminates the inflationary adjustments for the calculation of income tax as well as the new investment tax deduction and (ii) imposes a new tax on financial transactions effective as of February 1, 2016, for those identified as “special taxpayers” at a rate of 0.75% over certain financial transactions, such as bank withdrawals, transfer of bonds and securities, payment of debts without intervention of the financial system and debits on bank accounts for cross-border payments, which will be immediately withheld by the banks.

On April 1, 2015, the Brazilian government issued Decree No. 8.426/15 to impose, as of July 2015, PIS/COFINS (Social Contributions on Gross Revenues) of 4.65% on financial income (except for foreign exchange variations).

Starting in 2016, the Brazilian rates of value-added tax in certain states will change as follows: Mato Grosso do Sul from 17% to 20%; Minas Gerais, 18% and an additional 2% will be charged on sales to non-taxpayers, as a contribution to a poverty eradication fund; Rio de Janeiro, the contribution to poverty eradication will increase from 1% to 2% as of April 2016; and Parana, 16% and an additional 2% will be charged on sales to non-taxpayers, as a contribution to a poverty eradication fund. In addition and specifically for sales of beer, the value-tax added tax rate will increase to a maximum of 25%.

In addition, as of January 1, 2016, the Brazilian federal production tax rates will be reduced and the rates of the federal sales tax will increase. We expect the average of these taxes will range between 14.4% and 15.5% over net sales.

 

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Taxation of Sparkling Beverages

All the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates, except for Panama, impose a value-added tax on the sale of sparkling beverages, with a rate of 16% in Mexico, 12% in Guatemala, 15% in Nicaragua, an average percentage of 15.8% in Costa Rica, 16% in Colombia (applied only to the first sale in the supply chain), 12% in Venezuela, 21% in Argentina, and in Brazil 17% in the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás and 18% in the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Parana and Rio de Janeiro. The state of Rio de Janeiro also charges an additional 1% as a contribution to a poverty eradication fund. In Brazil the value-added tax is grossed-up and added, along with federal sales tax, at the taxable basis. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA is responsible for charging and collecting the value-added tax from each of its retailers in Brazil, based on average retail prices for each state where it operates, defined primarily through a survey conducted by the government of each state, which in 2015 represented an average taxation of approximately 9.7% over net sales.

In addition, several of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates impose the following excise or other taxes:

 

   

Mexico imposes an excise tax of Ps. 1.00 per liter on the production, sale and importation of beverages with added sugar and HFCS as of January 1, 2014. This tax is applied only to the first sale and Coca-Cola FEMSA is responsible for charging and collecting this excise tax.

 

   

Guatemala imposes an excise tax of 0.18 cents in local currency (Ps. 0.41 as of December 31, 2015) per liter of sparkling beverage.

 

   

Costa Rica imposes a specific tax on non-alcoholic bottled beverages based on the combination of packaging and flavor, currently assessed at 18.11 colones (Ps. 0.57 as of December 31, 2015) per 250 ml, and an excise tax currently assessed at 6.313 colones (approximately Ps. 0.20 as of December 31, 2015) per 250 ml.

 

   

Nicaragua imposes a 9% tax on consumption, and municipalities impose a 1% tax on our Nicaraguan gross income.

 

   

Panama imposes a 5% tax based on the cost of goods produced and a 10% selective consumption tax on syrups, powders and concentrates.

 

   

Argentina imposes an excise tax of 8.7% on sparkling beverages containing less than 5% lemon juice or less than 10% fruit juice, and an excise tax of 4.2% on sparkling water and flavored sparkling beverages with 10% or more fruit juice, although this excise tax is not applicable to some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products.

 

   

Brazil assesses an average production tax of approximately 4.2% and an average sales tax of approximately 10.2% over net sales. Until April 30, 2015, these taxes were fixed by the federal government based on national average retail prices obtained through surveys. The national average retail price of each product and presentation was multiplied by a fixed rate combined with specific multipliers for each presentation, to obtain a fixed tax per liter, per product and presentation. These taxes were applied only to the first sale and Coca-Cola FEMSA was responsible for charging and collecting these taxes from each of its retailers. Beginning on May 1, 2015, these federal taxes were applied based on the price sold, as detailed in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s invoices, instead of an average retail price combined with a fixed tax rate and multiplier per presentation. Except for sales to wholesalers, these production and sales taxes apply only to the first sale and Coca-Cola FEMSA is responsible for charging and collecting these taxes from each of its retailers. For sales to wholesalers, they are entitled to recover the sales tax and charge this tax again upon the resale of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products to retailers.

 

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Colombia’s municipalities impose a sales tax that varies between 0.35% and 1.2% of net sales.

 

   

Venezuela’s municipalities impose a variable excise tax applied only to the first sale that varies between 0.6% and 2.5% of net sales.

Price Controls

Voluntary price restraints or statutory price controls have been imposed historically in several of the countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Currently, there are no price controls on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in any of the territories where it has operations, except for those in Argentina, where authorities directly supervise five products sold through supermarkets as a measure to control inflation, and Venezuela, where the government has imposed price controls on certain products, including bottled water. In addition, in January 2014, the Venezuelan government passed the Ley Orgánica de Precios Justos (Fair Prices Law), which was amended in November 2014 and once again in November 2015, mainly to increase applicable fines and penalties. The purpose of this law is to establish regulations and administrative proceedings to impose a limit on profits earned on the sale of goods, including Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products, seeking to maintain price stability of, and equal access to, goods and services. A ruling derived from this law imposes an obligation to manufacturing companies to label products with the fair or maximum sales’ price for each product. This law also creates the National Office of Costs and Prices, whose main role is to oversee price controls and set maximum retail prices on certain consumer goods and services. We cannot assure you that Coca-Cola FEMSA will be in compliance at all times with these laws based on changes, market dynamics in these two countries and the lack of clarity of certain basic aspects of the applicable law in Venezuela. Any such changes and potential violations may have an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA. See “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Company – Coca-Cola FEMSA - Regulatory developments may adversely affect Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business .”

Environmental Matters

In all of our territories, our operations are subject to federal and state laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment.

Mexico

The Mexican federal authority in charge of overseeing compliance with the federal environmental laws is the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales or Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources, which we refer to as “SEMARNAT”. An agency of SEMARNAT, the Procuraduría Federal de Protección al Ambiente or Federal Environmental Protection Agency, which we refer to as “PROFEPA”, has the authority to enforce the Mexican federal environmental laws. As part of its enforcement powers, PROFEPA can bring administrative, civil and criminal proceedings against companies and individuals that violate environmental laws, regulations and Mexican Official Standards and has the authority to impose a variety of sanctions. These sanctions may include, among other things, monetary fines, revocation of authorizations, concessions, licenses, permits or registrations, administrative arrests, seizure of contaminating equipment, and in certain cases, temporary or permanent closure of facilities. Additionally, as part of its inspection authority, PROFEPA is entitled to periodically inspect the facilities of companies whose activities are regulated by the Mexican environmental legislation and verify compliance therewith. Furthermore, in special situations or certain areas where federal jurisdiction is not applicable or appropriate, the state and municipal authorities can administer and enforce certain environmental regulations of their respective jurisdictions.

In Mexico, the principal legislation relating to environmental matters is the Ley General de Equilibrio Ecológico y Protección al Ambiente (Federal General Law for Ecological Equilibrium and Environmental Protection, or the Mexican Environmental Law) and the Ley General para la Prevención y Gestión Integral de los Residuos (General Law for the Prevention and Integral Management of Waste). Under the Mexican Environmental Law, rules have been promulgated concerning water and hazardous substances. In particular, Mexican environmental laws and regulations require that we file periodic reports with respect to air and water emissions and hazardous wastes and set forth standards for waste water discharge that apply to our operations. We are also subject to certain minimal restrictions on the operation of delivery trucks in Mexico City. We have implemented several programs designed to facilitate compliance with air, waste, noise and energy standards established by current Mexican federal and state environmental laws, including a program that installs catalytic converters and liquid petroleum gas in delivery trucks for our operations in Mexico City.

 

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In March 2015, the Ley General de Cambio Climático (General Law of Climate Change), its regulation and certain decrees related to such law became effective, imposing upon different industries (including the food and beverage industry) the obligation to report direct or indirect gas emissions exceeding 25,000 tons of carbon dioxide. Currently Coca-Cola FEMSA is not required to report these emissions, since it does not exceed this threshold. We cannot assure you that we will not be required to comply with this reporting requirement in the future.

In Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Mexican operations, Coca-Cola FEMSA established a partnership with The Coca-Cola Company and ALPLA, a supplier of plastic bottles to Coca-Cola FEMSA in Mexico, to create Industria Mexicana de Reciclaje (IMER), a PET recycling facility located in Toluca, Mexico. This facility started operations in 2005 and has a recycling capacity of approximately 25,000 metric tons per year from which 15,000 metric tons can be re-used in PET bottles for food packaging purposes. Coca-Cola FEMSA has also continued contributing funds to ECOCE, A.C., a nationwide collector of containers and packaging materials. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants located in Toluca, Reyes, Cuautitlan, Apizaco, San Cristobal, Morelia, Ixtacomitan, Coatepec, Poza Rica, Ojuelos, Pacifico and Cuernavaca have received or are in the process of receiving a Certificado de Industria Limpia (Certificate of Clean Industry). In addition, seven of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s distribution centers located in the State of Mexico, Mexico have received or are in the process of receiving a Certificate of Clean Industry.

Additionally, several of our subsidiaries have entered into long-term wind power purchase agreements with wind park developers in Mexico to receive electrical energy for use at production and distribution facilities of FEMSA and Coca-Cola FEMSA throughout Mexico, as well as for a significant number of OXXO stores.

Central America

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Central American operations are subject to several federal and state laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment, which have been enacted in the last ten years, as awareness has increased in this region about the protection of the environment and the disposal of hazardous and toxic materials as well as water usage. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Costa Rica and Panama operations have participated in a joint effort along with the local division of The Coca-Cola Company called Misión Planeta (Mission Planet) for the collection and recycling of non-returnable plastic bottles.

Colombia

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Colombian operations are subject to several Colombian federal and state laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment and the disposal of treated water and toxic and hazardous materials. These laws include the control of atmospheric emissions, noise emissions, disposal of treated water and strict limitations on the use of chlorofluorocarbons. In addition, on February 6, 2012, Colombia promulgated Decree No. 303, which requires Coca-Cola FEMSA to apply for an authorization to discharge its water into public waterways. Coca-Cola FEMSA is engaged in nationwide reforestation programs, and campaigns for the collection and recycling of glass and plastic bottles, among other programs with positive environmental impacts. Coca-Cola FEMSA has also obtained and maintained the ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, FSSC 22000 and PAS 220 certifications for its plants located in Medellin, Cali, Bogota, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga and La Calera, as recognition for the highest quality and food harmlessness in its production processes, which is evidence of its strict level of compliance with relevant Colombian regulations. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s six plants joined a small group of companies that have obtained these certifications. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s new plant located in Tocancipa commenced operations in February 2015 and Coca-Cola FEMSA expects that it will obtain the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification in 2017.

Venezuela

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations are subject to several Venezuelan federal, state and municipal laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment. The most relevant of these laws are the Ley Orgánica del Ambiente (Organic Environmental Law), the Ley Sobre Sustancias, Materiales y Desechos Peligrosos (Substance, Material and Dangerous Waste Law),

 

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the Ley Penal del Ambiente (Criminal Environmental Law) and the Ley de Aguas (Water Law). Since the enactment of the Organic Environmental Law in 1995, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan subsidiary has presented the corresponding authorities with plans to bring their production facilities and distribution centers into compliance with applicable laws, which mainly consist of building or expanding the capacity of water treatment plants in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottling facilities. Coca-Cola FEMSA currently has water treatment plants in its bottling facilities located in the city of Barcelona, Valencia and in its Antimano bottling plant in Caracas and Coca-Cola FEMSA is still under construction and expansion of its current water treatment plant in its bottling facility in Maracaibo.

Brazil

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian operations are subject to several federal, state and municipal laws and regulations related to the protection of the environment. Among the most relevant laws and regulations are those dealing with the emission of toxic and hazardous gases, disposal of wastewater and solid waste, and soil contamination by hazardous chemicals, which impose penalties, such as fines, facility closures or criminal charges depending upon the level of non-compliance.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production plant located in Jundiai has been recognized by the Brazilian authorities for its compliance with environmental regulations and for having standards well above those imposed by the law. The plant of Jundiai has been certified for GAO-Q and GAO-E. In addition, the plants of Jundiai, Mogi das Cruzes, Campo Grande, Marilia, Maringa, Curitiba and Bauru have been certified for (i) ISO 9001: 2008; (ii) ISO 14001: 2004 and (iii) norm OHSAS 18001: 2007. In 2012, the Jundiai, Campo Grande, Bauru, Marilia, Curitiba, Maringa, Porto Real and Mogi das Cruzes plants were certified in standard FSSC22000.

In Brazil, a municipal regulation of the City of Sao Paulo, implemented pursuant to Law 13.316/2002, came into effect requiring us to collect for recycling a specified annual percentage of plastic bottles made from PET sold in the City of Sao Paulo. Beginning in May 2011, Coca-Cola FEMSA was required to collect for recycling 90% of PET bottles sold. Currently, Coca-Cola FEMSA is not able to collect the entire required volume of PET bottles Coca-Cola FEMSA sells in the City of Sao Paulo for recycling. Since Coca-Cola FEMSA does not meet the requirements of this regulation, which Coca-Cola FEMSA believes to be more onerous than those imposed by the countries with the highest recycling standards, Coca-Cola FEMSA could be fined and be subject to other sanctions, such as the suspension of operations in any of its plants and/or distribution centers located in the City of Sao Paulo. In May 2008, when the law came into effect, Coca-Cola FEMSA and other bottlers in the City of Sao Paulo, through the Brazilian Soft Drink and Non-Alcoholic Beverage Association, or ABIR ( Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Refrigerantes e de Bebidas Não-alcoólicas ), filed a motion requesting a court to overturn this regulation due to the impossibility of compliance. In addition, in November 2009, in response to a municipal authority request for us to demonstrate the destination of the PET bottles sold in Sao Paulo, Coca-Cola FEMSA filed a motion presenting all of its recycling programs and requesting a more practical timeline to comply with the requirements of the law. In October 2010, the municipal authority of Sao Paulo levied a fine on its Brazilian operating subsidiary of 250,000 Brazilian reais (approximately Ps. 1.1 million as of December 31, 2015) on the grounds that the report submitted by its Brazilian operating subsidiary did not comply with the 75% proper disposal requirement for the period from May 2008 to May 2010. Coca-Cola FEMSA filed an appeal against this fine, which was denied by the municipal authority in May 2013. This resolution is final and non-appealable and, therefore, the administrative stage is closed. In July 2012, the State Appellate Court of Sao Paulo rendered a decision admitting an interlocutory appeal filed on behalf of ABIR suspending the fines and other sanctions to ABIR’s associated companies, including its Brazilian subsidiary, for alleged noncompliance with the recycling municipal regulation up to the final resolution of the lawsuit. Coca-Cola FEMSA is still awaiting final resolution of the lawsuit filed on behalf of ABIR. Coca-Cola FEMSA cannot assure you that these measures will have the desired effect or that Coca-Cola FEMSA will prevail in its judicial challenge.

In August 2010, Law No. 12.305/2010 established the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy. This policy is based on the principle of shared responsibility between the government, companies and the public, and provides for the post-consumption return of products to companies and requires public authorities to implement waste management programs. This law is regulated by Federal Decree No. 7.404/2010, and was published in December 2010. In response to the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy, in December 2012, a proposal of agreement was provided to the Ministry of the Environment by almost 30 associations involved in the packaging sector, including ABIR in its capacity as representative for The Coca-Cola Company, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian subsidiary, and other bottlers. This agreement proposed the creation of a “coalition” to implement systems for reverse logistics

 

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packaging non-dangerous waste that makes up the dry portion of municipal solid waste or its equivalent. The goal of the proposal is to create methodologies for sustainable development, and protect the environment, society, and the economy. The Ministry of Environment approved and signed this agreement in November 2015.

Argentina

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Argentine operations are subject to federal and municipal laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment. The most significant of these are regulations concerning waste water discharge, which are enforced by the Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable (Ministry of Natural Resources and Sustainable Development) and the Organismo Provincial para el Desarrollo Sostenible (Provincial Organization for Sustainable Development) for the province of Buenos Aires. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Alcorta plant is in compliance with environmental standards and Coca-Cola FEMSA has been certified for ISO 14001:2004 for its plants and operative units in Buenos Aires.

For all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plant operations, it employs an environmental management system: Sistema de Administración Ambiental (Environmental Administration System, or EKOSYSTEM) that is contained within Sistema Integral de Calidad (Integral Quality System).

Coca-Cola FEMSA has expended, and may be required to expend in the future, funds for compliance with and remediation under local environmental laws and regulations. Currently, we do not believe that such costs will have a material adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results or financial condition. However, since environmental laws and regulations and their enforcement are becoming increasingly more stringent in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories, and there is increased recognition by local authorities of the need for higher environmental standards in the countries where it operates, changes in current regulations may result in an increase in costs, which may have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s future results or financial condition. Coca-Cola FEMSA is not aware of any significant pending regulatory changes that would require a significant amount of additional remedial capital expenditures.

We do not believe that Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business activities pose a material risk to the environment, and we believe that Coca-Cola FEMSA is in material compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations.

Water Supply

In Mexico, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water directly from municipal utility companies and pumps water from wells pursuant to concessions obtained from the Mexican government on a plant-by-plant basis. Water use in Mexico is regulated primarily by the Ley de Aguas Nacionales de 1992 (as amended, the 1992 Water Law), and regulations issued thereunder, which created the Comisión Nacional del Agua (National Water Commission). The National Water Commission is in charge of overseeing the national system of water use. Under the 1992 Water Law, concessions for the use of a specific volume of ground or surface water generally run from five-to fifty-year terms, depending on the supply of groundwater in each region as projected by the National Water Commission. Concessionaires may request that concession terms be extended before they expire. The Mexican government is authorized to reduce the volume of ground or surface water granted for use by a concession by whatever volume of water that is not used by the concessionaire for two consecutive years. However, because the current concessions for each of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants in Mexico do not match each plant’s projected needs for water in future years, we successfully negotiated with the Mexican government the right to transfer the unused volume under concessions from certain plants to other plants anticipating greater water usage in the future. These concessions may be terminated if, among other things, we use more water than permitted or we fail to pay required concession-related fees and do not cure such situations in a timely manner. Although we have not undertaken independent studies to confirm the sufficiency of the existing groundwater supply, we believe that our existing concessions satisfy our current water requirements in Mexico.

In addition, the 1992 Water Law provides that plants located in Mexico that use deep water wells to supply their water requirements must pay a fee to the local governments for the discharge of residual waste water to drainage. Pursuant to this law, certain local authorities test the quality of the waste water discharge and charge plants an additional fee for measurements that exceed

 

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certain standards published by the National Water Commission. In the case of non-compliance with the law, penalties, including closures, may be imposed. All of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottling plants located in Mexico meet these standards. In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA’s plants in Apizaco and San Cristóbal are certified with ISO 14001.

In Brazil, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water and mineral water from wells pursuant to concessions granted by the Brazilian government for each plant. According to the Brazilian Constitution, water is considered an asset of common use and can only be exploited for the national interest by Brazilians or companies formed under Brazilian law. Concessionaires and users have the responsibility for any damage to the environment. The exploitation and use of water is regulated by the Código de Mineração (Code of Mining, Decree Law No. 227/67), the Código de Águas Minerais (Mineral Water Code, Decree Law No. 7841/45), the National Water Resources Policy (Law No. 9433/97) and by regulations issued thereunder. The companies that exploit water are supervised by the Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineiral – DNPM (National Department of Mineral Production) and the National Water Agency (Agência Nacional de Águas) in connection with federal health agencies, as well as state and municipal authorities. In Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Jundiai, Marilia, Curitiba, Maringa, Porto Real and Itabirito plants, it does not exploit spring water. In its Mogi das Cruzes, Bauru and Campo Grande plants, it has all the necessary permits for the exploitation of spring water.

In Argentina, a state water company provides water to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Alcorta plant on a limited basis; however, we believe the authorized amount meets Coca-Cola FEMSA’s requirements for this plant. In Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Monte Grande plant in Argentina, it pumps water from wells, in accordance with Law 25.688.

In Colombia, in addition to natural spring water for Manantial, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water directly from wells and from utility companies. Coca-Cola FEMSA is required to have a specific concession to exploit water from natural sources. Water use in Colombia is regulated by Law No. 9 of 1979 and Decrees 2811 of 1974 and No. 3930 of 2010. In addition, Decree No. 303 requires Coca-Cola FEMSA to apply for water concessions and for authorization to discharge its water into public waterways. The Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and Regional Autonomous Corporations supervises companies that use water as a raw material for their business.

In Nicaragua, the use of water is regulated by the Ley General de Aguas Nacionales (National Water Law), and Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water directly from wells. In Costa Rica, the use of water is regulated by the Ley de Aguas (Water Law). In both of these countries, Coca-Cola FEMSA exploits water from wells granted to it through governmental concessions. In Guatemala, no license or permits are required to exploit water from the private wells in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s own plants. In Panama, Coca-Cola FEMSA acquires water from a state water company, and the use of water is regulated by the Reglamento de Uso de Aguas de Panamá (Panama Use of Water Regulation). In Venezuela, Coca-Cola FEMSA uses private wells in addition to water provided by the municipalities, and it has taken the appropriate actions, including actions to comply with water regulations, to have water supply available from these sources, regulated by the Ley de Aguas (Water Law).

In addition, Coca-Cola FEMSA obtains water for the production of some of its natural spring water products, such as Manantial in Colombia and Crystal in Brazil, from spring water pursuant to concessions granted.

We cannot assure you that water will be available in sufficient quantities to meet Coca-Cola FEMSA’s future production needs, that it will be able to maintain its current concessions or that additional regulations relating to water use will not be adopted in the future in its territories. We believe that we are in material compliance with the terms of our existing water concessions and that we are in compliance with all relevant water regulations.

Other Regulations

In December 2009, the Venezuelan government issued a decree requiring a reduction in energy consumption by at least 20% for industrial companies whose consumption is greater than two megawatts per hour and to submit an energy-usage reduction plan. Some of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s bottling operations in Venezuela outside of Caracas met this threshold and they submitted a plan, which included the purchase of generators for its plants. Since then, Coca-Cola FEMSA has installed electrical generators in its Antimano, Barcelona, Maracaibo and Valencia bottling facilities to mitigate any such risks and filed the respective energy usage reduction plans with the authorities. In addition, since January 2010, the Venezuelan government has implemented and continues to implement power cuts and other measures for all industries in Caracas whose consumption is above 35 kilowatts per hour.

 

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In August 2013, the current Mexican president, Enrique Peña Nieto, proposed a constitutional reform to provide for modernization and growth of the Mexican energy sector (the “Mexican Energy Reform”). Following intense review of and debate on the proposal, in December 2013 the Mexican government approved a decree containing amendments and additions to the Mexican Constitution in matters of energy. The Mexican Energy Reform provides for the opening of the Mexican energy market to the participation of private parties including companies with foreign investment, allowing for FEMSA Comercio to participate directly in the retail of fuel products. However, secondary legislation and regulation of the approved Mexican Energy Reform is in transition, and deregulation of fuel prices will be conducted gradually; starting January 1, 2015, until December 31, 2017, gasoline and diesel prices shall be established by the Mexican executive power by decree, taking into account transportation cost differences between regions and other factors, and starting January 1, 2018, retail prices for gasoline and diesel will be freely determined by market conditions.

In May 2014, the Mexican government approved a decree that established mandatory guidelines applicable to the entire national education system (from elementary school through college). According to the decree, the sale of specific sparkling beverages and still beverages that contain sugar or HFCS by schools is prohibited. Schools are still allowed to sell water and certain still beverages, such as juices and juice-based beverages, that comply with the guidelines established in such decree. We cannot assure you that the Mexican government will not further restrict sales of other of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products by such schools. These restrictions and any further restrictions could have an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results of operations.

In January 2012, the Costa Rican government approved a decree which regulates the sale of food and beverages in public schools. According to the decree, the sale of all sparkling beverages and certain still beverages that contain sugar, syrup or HFCS in any type of presentation in schools is prohibited. Coca-Cola FEMSA is still allowed to sell water and certain still beverages in schools. Although Coca-Cola FEMSA is in compliance with this law, we cannot assure you that the Costa Rican government will not further restrict sales of other of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in schools in the future; these restrictions and any further restrictions could have an adverse impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s results of operations.

In May 2012, the Venezuelan government adopted significant changes to labor regulations that had a negative impact on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business and operations. The principal changes that impacted Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations were and still are: (i) the requirement that employee terminations are now subject to governmental authorization; (ii) retroactive assessments for any modifications to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s severance payment system; (iii) a reduction in the maximum daily and weekly working hours (from 44 to 40 weekly); (iv) an increase in mandatory weekly breaks, prohibiting a reduction in salaries as a result of such increase; and (v) the requirement that all third party contractors participating in the manufacturing and sales processes of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products be included in its payroll. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently in compliance with these labor regulations.

In November 2014, the Venezuelan government amended the Foreign Investment Law. As part of the amendments made, the law now provides that at least 75% of the value of foreign investment must be composed of assets located in Venezuela, which may include equipment, supplies or other goods or tangible assets required at the early stages of operations. By the end of the first fiscal year after commencement of operations in Venezuela, investors will be authorized to repatriate up to 80% of the profits derived from their investment. Any profits not otherwise repatriated in a fiscal year, may be accumulated and be repatriated the following fiscal year, together with profits generated during such year. In the event of liquidation, a company may repatriate up to 85% of the value of the foreign investment. Currently, the scope of this law is not entirely clear with respect to the liquidation process.

In December 2015, the Venezuelan Ministry of Health issued a resolution which imposes an obligation to label certain products, including sparkling beverages and still beverages that contain sugar with health warnings. Recently, the Venezuelan Ministry of Health granted a nine-month extension for the enforcement of this resolution. We, together with other companies in the industry and the corresponding authorities, are currently discussing a new resolution with a different scope, which would amend or supersede the resolution issued in December 2015.

 

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In September 2012, the Brazilian government issued Law No. 12,619 (Law of Professional Drivers), which regulates the working hours of professional drivers who distribute Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products from its plants to the distribution centers and to retailers and points of sale. Pursuant to this law, employers must keep a record of working hours, including overtime hours, of professional drivers in a reliable manner, such as electronic logbooks or worksheets. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently in compliance with this law.

In June 2014, the Brazilian government issued Law No. 12,997 (Law of Motorcycle Drivers) which imposes a risk premium of 30% of the base salary payable to all employees who drive motorcycles in their job. This risk premium became enforceable in October 2014, when the related rules and regulations were issued by the Ministry of Labor and Employment. Coca-Cola FEMSA believes that these rules and regulations (Decree No, 1.565/2014) were unduly issued by such Ministry since it did not comply with all the essential requirements established in Decree No. 1.127/2003. In November 2014, Coca-Cola FEMSA, in conjunction with other bottlers of the Coca-Cola system in Brazil and through the ABIR, filed an action against the Ministry of Labor and Employment to suspend the effects of such decree. ABIR’s associated companies, including Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Brazilian subsidiary, were issued a preliminary injunction suspending the effects of the decree and exempting Coca-Cola FEMSA from paying the risk premium. The Ministry of Labor and Employment filed an interlocutory appeal against the preliminary injunction in order to restore the effects of Decree No. 1.565/2014, which was denied. Coca-Cola FEMSA is currently awaiting final resolution of the lawsuit filed on behalf of ABIR. In the meantime, the Ministry of Labor and Employment in December 2015 started a new discussion with that participation of all interested parties seeking to reissue Decree No. 1.565/2014, in order to comply with the essential requirements.

In January 2014, a new Anti-Corruption Law in Brazil came into effect, which regulates bribery, corruption practices and fraud in connection with agreements entered into with governmental agencies. The main purpose of this law is to impose liability on companies carrying out such practices, establishing fines that can reach up to 20% of a company’s gross revenues in the previous fiscal year. Although Coca-Cola FEMSA believes it is in compliance with this law, if it was found liable for any of these practices, this law would have an adverse effect on Coca-Cola FEMSA’s business.

 

ITEM 4A. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

 

ITEM 5. OPERATING AND FINANCIAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS

The following discussion should be read in conjunction with, and is entirely qualified by reference to, our audited consolidated financial statements and the notes to those financial statements. Our consolidated financial statements were prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) as issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (“IASB”).

Overview of Events, Trends and Uncertainties

Management currently considers the following events, trends and uncertainties to be important to understanding its results and financial position during the periods discussed in this section:

 

   

Coca-Cola FEMSA has continued to grow organic volumes at a steady but moderate pace, highlighting Mexico where operative results were strong. However, in the short term there is some pressure from macroeconomic uncertainty in certain South American markets, including currency volatility. Volume growth is mainly driven by the Coca-Cola brand across markets, together with the solid performance of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s still beverage portfolio

 

   

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has maintained high rates of store openings across formats and continues to grow at solid rates in terms of total revenues. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has lower operating margins than our beverage business. Given that FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division has lower operating margins and given its fixed cost structure, it is more sensitive to changes in sales which could negatively affect operating margins. In addition, the integration of the new small-format retail businesses could also affect margins at the FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division level, given that these businesses have lower margins than the OXXO stores.

 

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FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division has expanded its retail service stations since March 2015. Such division has the lowest operating margins in FEMSA Comercio business portfolio.

 

   

Our consolidated results of operations are also significantly affected by the performance of the Heineken Group, as a result of our 20% economic interest. Our consolidated net income for 2015 included Ps. 5,879 million related to our non-controlling interest in the Heineken Group, as compared to Ps. 5,244 million for 2014.

Our results and financial position are affected by the economic and market conditions in the countries where our subsidiaries conduct their operations, particularly in Mexico. Changes in these conditions are influenced by a number of factors, including those discussed in “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors.”

Recent Developments

Effective January 18, 2016, Miguel Eduardo Padilla Silva replaced Daniel Rodriguez Cofré as our Chief Financial and Corporate Officer, and Mr. Rodriguez Cofré replaced Mr. Padilla Silva as Chief Executive Officer of FEMSA Comercio.

In February 2016, the Venezuelan government announced a 37% devaluation of the official exchange rate and changed the existing three-tier exchange rate system into a dual system. The official exchange rate (6.30 bolivars per US$ 1.00 as of December 31, 2015) and the SICAD exchange rate (13.50 bolivars per US$ 1.00 as of December 31, 2015) were merged into a single official exchange rate of 10.00 bolivars per US$ 1.00. The decision was part of a package of economic policies intended to mitigate the economic crisis of the member countries of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

In March 2016, the Venezuelan government announced that it was replacing the SIMADI exchange rate with a new market-based exchange rate known as Divisas Complementarias , or DICOM, and the official exchange rate with a preferential exchange rate denominated Divisa Protegida , or DIPRO. The DIPRO exchange rate is determined by the Venezuelan government and may be used to settle imports of a list of goods and raw materials, which has not been published as of the date of this annual report. The DICOM exchange rate is determined based on supply and demand of U.S. dollars. As of April 15, 2016, the DIPRO and DICOM exchange rates were 10 bolivars and 339.45 bolivars per U.S. dollar, respectively.

Coca-Cola FEMSA will closely monitor any further developments in Venezuela that may affect the exchange rates to translate the financial statements of its Venezuelan subsidiary in the future.

In March 2016, we issued EUR 1,000 million aggregate principal amount of 1.75% fixed rate Senior Notes due 2023 with a total yield of 1.824%.

Effects of Changes in Economic Conditions

Our results are affected by changes in economic conditions in Mexico, Brazil and in the other countries where we operate. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, 70%, 68% and 63%, respectively, of our total sales were attributable to Mexico. As a result, we have significant exposure to the economic conditions of certain countries, particularly those in Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina, although we continue to generate a substantial portion of our total sales from Mexico. Other than Venezuela, the participation of these other countries as a percentage of our total sales has not changed significantly during the last five years.

The Mexican economy is gradually recovering from a downturn as a result of the impact of the global financial crisis on many

 

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emerging economies in 2009. According to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía of Mexico (National Institute of Statistics and Geography, which we refer to as INEGI), Mexican GDP expanded by 2.5% in 2015 and by approximately 2.1% and 1.4% in 2014 and 2013, respectively. According to the Banco Nacional de México survey regarding the economic expectations of specialists, Mexican GDP is expected to increase by 2.40% in 2016, as of the latest estimate, published on April 1, 2016. The Mexican economy continues to be heavily influenced by the U.S. economy, and therefore, deterioration in economic conditions in, or delays in the recovery of, the U.S. economy may hinder any recovery in Mexico.

Our results are affected by the economic conditions in the countries where we conduct operations. Some of these economies continue to be heavily influenced by the U.S. economy, and therefore, deterioration in economic conditions in the U.S. economy may affect these economies. Deterioration or prolonged periods of weak economic conditions in the countries where we conduct operations may have, and in the past have had, a negative effect on our company and a material adverse effect on our results and financial condition. Our business may also be significantly affected by the interest rates, inflation rates and exchange rates of the currencies of the countries where we operate. Decreases in growth rates, periods of negative growth and/or increases in inflation or interest rates may result in lower demand for our products, lower real pricing of our products or a shift to lower margin products. In addition, an increase in interest rates would increase the cost to us of variable rate funding, which would have an adverse effect on our financial position.

Beginning in the fourth quarter of 2013 and through 2015, the exchange rate between the Mexican peso and the U.S. dollar fluctuated from a low of Ps. 12.77 per US$ 1.00, to a high of Ps. 17.36 per US$ 1.00. At December 31, 2015, the exchange rate (noon buying rate) was Ps. 17.1950 per US$ 1.00. On April 15, 2016, this exchange rate was Ps. 17.5580 per US$ 1.00. See “Item 3. Key Information—Exchange Rate Information.” A depreciation of the Mexican peso or local currencies in the countries where we operate relative to the U.S. dollar increases our cost of raw materials priced in U.S. dollars, including raw materials whose prices are set with reference to the U.S. dollar. In addition, a depreciation of the Mexican peso or local currencies in the countries where we operate relative to the U.S. dollar will increase our U.S. dollar-denominated debt obligations, which could negatively affect our financial position and results. However, this effect could be offset by a corresponding appreciation of our U.S. dollar-denominated cash position.

Operating Leverage

Companies with structural characteristics that result in margin expansion in excess of sales growth are referred to as having high “operating leverage.”

The operating subsidiaries of Coca-Cola FEMSA are engaged, to varying degrees, in capital-intensive activities. The high utilization of the installed capacity of the production facilities results in better fixed cost absorption, as increased output results in higher revenues without additional fixed costs. Absent significant increases in variable costs, gross profit margins will expand when production facilities are operated at higher utilization rates. Alternatively, higher fixed costs will result in lower gross profit margins in periods of lower output.

In addition, the commercial operations of Coca-Cola FEMSA are carried out through extensive distribution networks, the principal fixed assets of which are warehouses and trucks and are designed to handle large volumes of beverages. Fixed costs represent an important proportion of the total distribution expense of Coca-Cola FEMSA. Generally, the higher the volume that passes through the distribution system, the lower the fixed distribution cost as a percentage of the corresponding revenues. As a result, operating margins improve when the distribution capacity is operated at higher utilization rates. Alternatively, periods of decreased utilization because of lower volumes will negatively affect our operating margins.

FEMSA Comercio’s operations are characterized by low margin and relatively high fixed costs. These two characteristics make FEMSA Comercio a business with an operating margin that might be affected more easily by a change in sales levels.

 

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Critical Accounting Judgments and Estimates

In the application of our accounting policies, which are described in Note 2.3 to our audited consolidated financial statements, management is required to make judgments, estimates and assumptions about the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. The estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and other factors that are considered to be relevant. Actual results may differ from these estimates. The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period or in the period of the revision and future periods if the revision affects both current and future periods.

The following are the key assumptions concerning the future and other key sources of estimation uncertainty at the end of the reporting period that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year. Existing circumstances and assumptions about future developments, however, may change due to market changes or circumstances arising beyond our control. Such changes are reflected in the assumptions when they occur.

Impairment of indefinite lived intangible assets, goodwill and depreciable long-lived assets

Intangible assets with indefinite lives including goodwill are subject to annual impairment tests. Impairment exists when the carrying value of an asset or cash generating unit (CGU) exceeds its recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs to sell and its value in use. The fair value less costs to sell calculation is based on available data from binding sales transactions in arm’s length transactions of similar assets or observable market prices less incremental costs for disposing of the asset. In order to determine whether such assets are impaired, we initially calculate an estimation of the value in use of the cash-generating units to which such assets have been allocated. The value in use calculation requires management to estimate the future cash flows expected to arise from the cash-generating unit and a suitable discount rate in order to calculate present value. We review annually the carrying value of our intangible assets with indefinite lives and goodwill for impairment based on recognized valuation techniques. While we believe that our estimates are reasonable, different assumptions regarding such estimates could materially affect our evaluations. Impairment losses are recognized in current earnings in the period the related impairment is determined. The key assumptions used to determine the recoverable amount for our CGUs, including a sensitivity analysis, are further explained in Notes 3.16 and 12 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

We assess at each reporting date whether there is an indication that an asset may be impaired. If any indication exists, or when annual impairment testing for an asset is required, we estimate the asset’s recoverable amount. When the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its recoverable amount, the asset is considered impaired and is written down to its recoverable amount. In assessing value in use, the estimated future cash flows are discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the asset. In determining fair value less costs to sell, recent market transactions are taken into account, if available. If no such transactions can be identified, an appropriate valuation model is used. These calculations are corroborated by valuation multiples, quoted share prices for publicly traded subsidiaries or other available fair value indicators.

Useful lives of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets with defined useful lives

Property, plant and equipment, including returnable bottles as they are expected to provide benefits over a period of more than one year, as well as intangible assets with defined useful lives, are depreciated/amortized over their estimated useful lives. We base our estimates on the experience of our technical personnel as well as based on our experience in the industry for similar assets, see Notes 3.12, 3.14, 11 and 12 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

 

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Post-employment and other long-term employee benefits

We regularly evaluate the reasonableness of the assumptions used in our post-employment and other long-term employee benefit computations. Information about such assumptions is described in Note 16 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Income taxes

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement carrying amounts and the tax basis of assets and liabilities. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability, and record a deferred tax asset based on our judgment regarding the probability of historical taxable income continuing in the future, projected future taxable income and the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences, see Note 24 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Tax, labor and legal contingencies and provisions

We are subject to various claims and contingencies, related to tax, labor and legal proceedings as described in Note 25 to our audited consolidated financial statements. Due to their nature, such legal proceedings involve inherent uncertainties including, but not limited to, court rulings, negotiations between affected parties and governmental actions. Management periodically assesses the probability of loss for such contingencies and accrues a provision and/or discloses the relevant circumstances, as appropriate. If the potential loss of any claim or legal proceeding is considered probable and the amount can be reasonably estimated, we accrue a provision for the estimated loss. Management’s judgment must be exercised to determine the likelihood of such a loss and an estimate of the amount, due to the subjective nature of the loss.

Valuation of financial instruments

We are required to measure all derivative financial instruments at fair value. The fair values of derivative financial instruments are determined considering quoted prices in recognized markets. If such instruments are not traded, fair value is determined by applying techniques based upon technical models supported by sufficient reliable and verifiable data, recognized in the financial sector. We base our forward price curves upon market price quotations. Management believes that the chosen valuation techniques and assumptions used are appropriate in determining the fair value of financial instruments, see Note 20 to our audited consolidated financial statements.

Business combinations

Acquisitions of businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method. The consideration transferred in a business combination is measured at fair value, which is calculated as the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of the assets transferred by us, liabilities assumed by us to the former owners of the acquiree and the equity interests issued by us in exchange for control of the acquiree.

At the acquisition date, the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed are recognized at their fair value, except that:

 

   

Deferred tax assets or liabilities, and assets or liabilities related to employee benefit arrangements are recognized and measured in accordance with IAS 12, “ Income Taxes ” and IAS 19, “ Employee Benefits, ” respectively;

 

   

Liabilities or equity instruments related to share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree or to our share-based payment arrangements entered into to replace share-based payment arrangements of the acquiree are measured in accordance with IFRS 2, “ Share-based Payment” at the acquisition date, see Note 3.24 to our audited consolidated financial statements; and

 

   

Assets (or disposal groups) that are classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5, “ Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations ” are measured in accordance with that standard.

 

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Management’s judgment must be exercised to determine the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed.

Goodwill is measured as the excess of the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree, and the fair value of our previously held equity interest in the acquiree (if any) over the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and the liabilities assumed. If, after reassessment, the net of the acquisition-date amounts of the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed exceeds the sum of the consideration transferred, the amount of any non-controlling interests in the acquiree and the fair value of our previously held interest in the acquiree (if any), the excess is recognized immediately in profit or loss as a bargain purchase gain.

For each business combination, with respect to the non-controlling present ownership interests in the acquiree that entitle their holders to a proportionate share of net assets in liquidation, we elect whether to measure such interests at fair value or at the proportionate share of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets.

Investments in associates

If we hold, directly or indirectly, 20 percent or more of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that we have significant influence, unless it can be clearly demonstrated that this is not the case. If we hold, directly or indirectly, less than 20 percent of the voting power of the investee, it is presumed that we do not have significant influence, unless such influence can be clearly demonstrated. Decisions regarding the propriety of utilizing the equity method of accounting for a less than 20 percent-owned corporate investee require a careful evaluation of voting rights and their impact on our ability to exercise significant influence. Management considers the existence of the following circumstances which may indicate that we are in a position to exercise significant influence over a less than 20 percent-owned corporate investee:

 

   

Representation on the board of directors or equivalent governing body of the investee;

 

   

Participation in policy-making processes, including participation in decisions about dividends or other distributions;

 

   

Material transactions between us and the investee;

 

   

Interchange of managerial personnel; or

 

   

Provision of essential technical information.

Management also considers the existence and effect of potential voting rights that are currently exercisable or currently convertible when assessing whether we have significant influence.

In addition, we evaluate certain indicators that provide evidence of significant influence, such as:

 

   

Whether the extent of our ownership is significant relative to other shareholders (i.e. a lack of concentration of other shareholders);

 

   

Whether our significant shareholders, fellow subsidiaries or officers hold additional investment in the investee; and

 

   

Whether we are part of significant investee committees, such as the executive committee or the finance committee.

Joint arrangements

An arrangement can be a joint arrangement even though not all of its parties have joint control of the arrangement. When we are

 

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a party to an arrangement we shall assess whether the contractual arrangement gives all the parties or a group of the parties, control of the arrangement collectively; joint control exists only when decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties that control the arrangement collectively. Management needs to apply judgment when assessing whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, have joint control of an arrangement. When assessing joint control, management considers the following facts and circumstances:

 

   

Whether all the parties, or a group of the parties, control the arrangement, considering the definition of joint control, as described in note 3.11.2 to our audited consolidated financial statements; and

 

   

Whether decisions about the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of all the parties, or of a group of the parties.

As mentioned in Note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements, Coca-Cola FEMSA accounts for its 51% investment at CCFPI as a joint venture using the equity method based on the facts that (i) during a four-year period ending January 25, 2017, all decisions must be approved jointly with The Coca-Cola Company, (ii) following this four-year period, all decisions related to the annual normal operations plan and any other ordinary matters will be approved only by Coca-Cola FEMSA, and (iii) potential voting rights to acquire the remaining 49% of CCFPI are not likely to be executed in the foreseeable future due to the fact the call option was “out of the money” as of December 31, 2015 and 2014.

Venezuela exchange rates and consolidation

As is further explained in Note 3.3 to our audited consolidated financial statements, the exchange rate used to account for foreign currency denominated monetary items arising in Venezuela, and also the exchange rate used to translate the financial statements of our Venezuelan subsidiary for group reporting purposes are both key sources of estimation uncertainty in preparing the accompanying consolidated financial statements.

As is also explained in Note 3.3 to our audited consolidated financial statements, the Company believes that it currently controls its subsidiary operations in Venezuela but recognizes the challenging economic and political environment in Venezuela. Should the Company in the future conclude that it no longer controls such operations, its consolidated financial statements would change by material amounts.

Future Impact of Recently Issued Accounting Standards not yet in Effect

We have not applied the following new and revised IFRS and IAS that have been issued but were not yet effective up to the date of issuance of our consolidated financial statements. We intend to adopt these standards, if applicable, when they become effective:

IFRS 9, Financial Instruments

In July 2014, the IASB issued the final version of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments which reflects all phases of the financial instruments project and replaces IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement and all previous versions of IFRS 9. The standard introduces new requirements for classification and measurement, impairment and hedge accounting. IFRS 9 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018, with early application permitted. The transition to IFRS 9 differs by requirements and is partly retrospective and partly prospective. We have not early adopted this IFRS, and we have yet to complete our evaluation of whether it will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.

IFRS 15, Revenue from Contracts with Customers

IFRS 15, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers,” was originally issued in May 2014, and applies to annual reporting periods beginning on or after January 1, 2018, earlier application is permitted. Revenue is recognized as control is passed, either over time or at a point in time.

 

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The standard outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry–specific guidance. In applying the revenue model to contracts within its scope, an entity will: 1) identify the contract(s) with a customer; 2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; 3) determine the transaction price; 4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and 5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies a performance obligation. Also, an entity needs to disclose sufficient information to enable users of financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from contracts with customers. We have yet to complete our evaluation of whether there will be a significant impact as a consequence of this standard’s adoption; nonetheless most of our operations would recognize revenue at a single point in time, which is when we transfer goods or services to a customer. We do not expect a potential significant impact on our consolidated financial statements and we expect to complete our evaluation during 2017.

IFRS 16, Leases

IFRS 16 “Leases” was issued in January 2016 and supersedes IAS 17 “Leases” and related interpretations. The new standard brings most leases on-balance sheet for lessees under a single model, eliminating the distinction between operating and finance leases. Lessor accounting, however, remains largely unchanged and the distinction between operating and finance leases is retained. IFRS 16 is effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2019, with earlier adoption permitted if IFRS 15 “Revenue from Contracts with Customers” has also been applied.

Under IFRS 16 a lessee recognizes a right-of-use asset and a lease liability. The right-of-use asset is treated similarly to other non-financial assets and depreciated accordingly and the liability accrues interest. This will typically produce a front-loaded expense profile (whereas operating leases under IAS 17 would typically have had straight-line expenses) as an assumed linear depreciation of the right-of-use asset and the decreasing interest on the liability will lead to an overall decrease of expense over the life of the lease.

The lease liability is initially measured at the present value of the lease payments payable over the lease term, discounted at the rate implicit in the lease if that can be readily determined. If that rate cannot be readily determined, the lessee shall use their incremental borrowing rate. However, a lessee may elect to account for lease payments as an expense on a straight-line basis over the lease term for leases with a lease term of 12 months or less and containing no purchase options (this election is made by class of underlying asset); and leases where the underlying asset has a low value when new, such as personal computers or small items of office furniture (this election can be made on a lease-by-lease basis). We have yet to complete our evaluation of whether we will have a potential impact as a consequence of this standard’s adoption, although given the nature of the Company’s operations, we will expect a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Amendments to IAS 7, Disclosure Initiative

The amendments to IAS 7 Statement of Cash Flows require that the following changes in liabilities arising from financing activities are disclosed separately from changes in other assets and liabilities: (i) changes from financing cash flows; (ii) changes arising from obtaining or losing control of subsidiaries or other businesses; (iii) the effect of changes in foreign exchange rates; (iv) changes in fair values; and (v) other changes. One way to fulfill the new disclosure requirement is to provide a reconciliation between the opening and closing balances in the statement of financial position for liabilities arising from financing activities.

Liabilities arising from financing activities are those for which cash flows were, or future cash flows will be, classified in the statement of cash flows as cash flows from financing activities. The new disclosure requirements also relate to changes in financial assets if they meet the same definition. These amendments are effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2017 with earlier application permitted, and entities need not provide comparative information when they first apply them. We are in the process of assessing the potential impacts from the adoption of these amendments in our financial statements.

 

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Operating Results

The following table sets forth our consolidated income statement under IFRS for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013:

 

           Year Ended December 31,  
     2015 (1)     2015     2014     2013  
     (in millions of U.S. dollars and Mexican pesos)  

Net sales

   $ 18,078      Ps. 310,849      Ps. 262,779      Ps. 256,804   

Other operating revenues

     43        740        670        1,293   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total revenues.

     18,121        311,589        263,449        258,097   

Cost of goods sold

     10,957        188,410        153,278        148,443   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Gross profit

     7,164        123,179        110,171        109,654   

Administrative expenses

     681        11,705        10,244        9,963   

Selling expenses

     4,442        76,375        69,016        69,574   

Other income

     24        423        1,098        651   

Other expenses

     (159     (2,741     (1,277     (1,439

Interest expense

     (452     (7,777     (6,701     (4,331

Interest income

     59        1,024        862        1,225   

Foreign exchange loss, net

     (69     (1,193     (903     (724

Monetary position loss, net

     (2     (36     (319     (427

Market value gain on financial instruments

     21        364        73        8   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Income before income taxes and share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method

     1,463        25,163        23,744        25,080   

Income taxes

     461        7,932        6,253        7,756   

Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes

     352        6,045        5,139        4,831   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Consolidated net income

   $ 1,354      Ps. 23,276      Ps. 22,630      Ps. 22,155   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Controlling interest net income

     1,029        17,683        16,701        15,922   

Non-controlling interest net income

     325        5,593        5,929        6,233   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Consolidated net income

   $ 1,354      Ps. 23,276      Ps. 22,630      Ps. 22,155   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1) Translation to U.S. dollar amounts at an exchange rate of Ps. 17.19 to US$ 1.00, provided solely for the convenience of the reader.

 

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The following table sets forth certain operating results by reportable segment under IFRS for each of our segments for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013.

 

    Year Ended December 31,  
    2015     2014     2013     2015 vs. 2014     2014 vs. 2013  
    (in millions of Mexican pesos, except
margins
    Percentage Growth
(Decrease)
 

Net sales

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

  Ps. 151,914      Ps. 146,948      Ps. 155,175        3.4%        (5.3%

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    132,891        109,624        97,572        21.2%        12.4%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    18,510        —          —          —          —     

Total revenues

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    152,360        147,298        156,011        3.4%        (5.6%

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    132,891        109,624        97,572        21.2%        12.4%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    18,510        —          —          —          —     

Cost of goods sold

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    80,330        78,916        83,076        1.8%        (5.0%

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    85,600        70,238        62,986        21.9%        11.5%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    17,090        —          —          —          —     

Gross profit

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    72,030        68,382        72,935        5.3%        (6.2%

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    47,291        39,386        34,586        20.1%        13.9%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    1,420        —          —          —          —     

Administrative expenses

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    6,405        6,385        6,487        0.3%        (1.6%

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    2,868        2,042        1,883        40.5%        8.4%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    88        —          —          —          —     

Selling expenses

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    41,879        40,465        44,828        3.5%        (9.7%

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    33,305        28,492        24,707        16.9%        15.3%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    1,124        —          —          —          —     

Depreciation

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    6,310        6,072        6,371        3.9%        (4.7%

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    3,182        2,779        2,328        14.5%        19.4%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    56        —          —          —          —     

Gross margin (1)(2)

         

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    47.3     46.4     46.7     0.9p.p.        (0.3p.p.

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    35.6     35.9     35.4     (0.3)p.p.        0.5p.p.   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    7.7     —          —          —          —     
Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes          

Coca-Cola FEMSA

    155        (125     289        224% (5)       (143.3% ) (4)  

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

    (10     37        11        (127% ) (6)       236.4%   

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

    —          —          —          —          —     

CB Equity (3)

    5,879        5,244        4,587        12.1%        14.3%   

 

(1) Gross margin is calculated with reference to total revenues.

 

(2) As used herein, p.p. refers to a percentage point increase (or decrease) contrasted with a straight percentage increase (or decrease).

 

(3) CB Equity holds Heineken N.V. and Heineken Holding N.V. shares.

 

(4) Reflects the percentage decrease between the gain of Ps. 289 million recorded in 2013 and the loss of Ps. 125 million recorded in 2014.

 

(5) Reflects the percentage increase between the loss of Ps. 125 million recorded in 2014 and the gain of Ps. 155 million recorded in 2015.

 

(6) Reflects the percentage decrease between the gain of Ps. 37 million recorded in 2014 and the loss of Ps. 10 million recorded in 2015.

 

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Results from our Operations for the Year Ended December 31, 2015 Compared to the Year Ended December 31, 2014

FEMSA Consolidated

FEMSA’s consolidated total revenues increased 18.3% to Ps. 311,589 million in 2015 compared to Ps. 263,449 million in 2014. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s total revenues increased 3.4% to Ps. 152,360 million, driven by the local currency average price per unit case growth in all of their operations and volume growth in Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Argentina. FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s revenues increased 21.2% to Ps. 132,891 million, driven by the integration of Socofar and the opening of 1,208 net new OXXO stores combined with an average increase of 6.9% in same-store sales. FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division’s revenues amounted Ps. 18,510 million in 2015.

Consolidated gross profit increased 11.8% to Ps. 123,179 million in 2015 compared to Ps. 110,171 million in 2014. Gross margin decreased 230 basis points to 39.5% of consolidated total revenues compared to 2014, reflecting the creation of FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division, which has a lower margin than the rest of FEMSA’s business units, and a margin contraction at FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division driven by the integration of Socofar.

Consolidated administrative expenses increased 14.3% to Ps. 11,705 million in 2015 compared to Ps. 10,244 million in 2014, driven by higher expenses related to the integration of Socofar into FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division. As a percentage of total revenues, consolidated administrative expenses decreased 10 basis points, from 3.9% in 2014 to 3.8% in 2015.

Consolidated selling expenses increased 10.7% to Ps. 76,375 million in 2015 as compared to Ps. 69,016 million in 2014, mainly driven by incremental expenses at FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division, in particular the integration of Socofar into FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s business. As a percentage of total revenues, selling expenses decreased 160 basis points, from 26.1% in 2014 to 24.5% in 2015.

Some of our subsidiaries pay management fees to us in consideration for corporate services we provide to them. These fees are recorded as administrative expenses in the respective business segments. Our subsidiaries’ payments of management fees are eliminated in consolidation and, therefore, have no effect on our consolidated operating expenses.

Other income mainly includes gains on sales of property, plant and equipment. During 2015, other income decreased to Ps. 682 million from Ps. 1,098 million in 2014, reflecting a difficult comparable base in 2014, when we registered the write-off of certain contingencies.

Other expenses mainly include disposal and impairment of long-lived assets, contingencies, as well as their subsequent interest and penalties, severance payments derived from restructuring programs and donations. During 2015, other expenses increased to Ps. 2,741 million from Ps. 1,277 million in 2014 driven by operative currency fluctuation effects at Coca-Cola FEMSA and, to a lesser extent, by incremental disposals of certain fixed assets at FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division.

Net financing expenses increased to Ps. 7,618 million from Ps. 6,988 million in 2014, driven by an interest expense of Ps. 7,777 million in 2015 compared to Ps. 6,701 million in 2014, resulting mainly from higher interest expenses at Coca-Cola FEMSA Brazil following the reset of terms of certain cross-currency swaps related to the acquisitions of Spaipa and Companhia Fluminense in 2013.

Our accounting provision for income taxes in 2015 was Ps. 7,932 million, as compared to Ps. 6,253 million in 2014, resulting in an effective tax rate of 31.5% in 2015, as compared to 26.3% in 2014, in line with our expected medium-term range of low 30’s. The lower effective tax rate registered during 2014 is mainly related to a one-time benefit resulting from the settlement of certain contingent tax liabilities under the tax amnesty program offered by the Brazilian tax authorities, which was registered during 2014.

 

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Share of the profit of associates and joint ventures accounted for using the equity method, net of taxes, increased 17.6% to Ps. 6,045 million in 2015 compared with Ps. 5,139 million in 2014, mainly driven by an increase in FEMSA’s 20% participation in Heineken’s results.

Consolidated net income was Ps. 23,276 million in 2015 compared to Ps. 22,630 million in 2014, mainly as a result of growth in FEMSA’s income before income taxes combined with an increase in FEMSA’s 20% participation in Heineken’s results, which more than compensated for higher interest expenses. Controlling interest amounted to Ps. 17,683 million in 2015 compared to Ps. 16,701 million in 2014. Controlling interest in 2015 per FEMSA BD Unit was Ps. 4.94 (US$ 2.87 per ADS).

Coca-Cola FEMSA

The comparability of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s underlying financial and operating performance in 2015 as compared to 2014 was affected by the following factors: (1) translation effects from fluctuations in exchange rates and (2) results of operations in territories that are considered hyperinflationary economies (currently, the only operation that is considered a hyperinflationary economy is Venezuela). To translate the full-year 2015 reported results of Venezuela, we used the SIMADI exchange rate of 198.70 bolivars per US$ 1.00, as compared to 49.99 bolivars per US$ 1.00 used to translate our 2014 reported results. In addition, the average depreciations to the U.S. dollar of currencies used in Coca-Cola FEMSA’s main operations during 2015, as compared to 2014, were: 41.6% for the Brazilian real, 37% for the Colombian peso, 19.2% for the Mexican peso and 14.1% for the Argentine peso.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s reported consolidated total revenues increased 3.4% to Ps. 152,360 million in 2015 despite the negative translation effect resulting from using the SIMADI exchange rate to translate the results of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations and the depreciation of the Brazilian real, the Colombian peso, the Mexican peso and the Argentine peso. Excluding the effect of currency fluctuations and the results of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, total revenues would have grown 8.6%, driven by the growth of the average price per unit case in all of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations and volume growth in Mexico, Central America, Colombia and Argentina.

Total reported sales volume increased 0.5% to 3,435.6 million unit cases in 2015, as compared to 2014. Excluding the results of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, total volume would have grown 0.7% in 2015, as compared to 2014. Coca-Cola FEMSA’s sparkling beverage portfolio grew 0.5% as compared to 2014. Excluding the effect of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, the sparkling beverage portfolio would have grown 0.7% as a result of positive performance of the Coca-Cola brand in Mexico, Colombia and Central America, and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s flavored sparkling beverage portfolio in Mexico, Colombia, Argentina and Central America. The still beverage category grew 4.9% as compared to 2014. Excluding the effects of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, the still beverage category would have grown 6.5% driven by the positive performance of Jugos del Valle juice in Colombia, Mexico and Central America; ValleFrut orangeade in Mexico and Brazil; the Powerade brand across most of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories and the Santa Clara dairy business in Mexico. Bottled water, excluding bulk water, grew 2.3% as compared to 2014. Excluding the effects of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, bottled water, excluding bulk water, would have grown 1.8%, driven by growth in Colombia, Argentina, Brazil and Central America. Bulk water decreased 2.8%, as compared to 2014, mainly driven by a contraction of the Ciel brand in Mexico.

Consolidated reported average price per unit case grew 3.5% reaching Ps. 42.34 in 2015, as compared to Ps. 40.92 in 2014, despite the negative translation effect resulting from using the SIMADI exchange rate to translate the results of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations and the depreciation of the Brazilian real, the Colombian peso and the Argentine peso. Excluding the effect of currency fluctuations and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, average price per unit case would have grown 8.8% in 2015, driven by average price per unit case increases in local currency in each of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s operations.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s reported gross profit increased 5.3% to Ps. 72,030 million in 2015 with a gross margin expansion of 90 basis points. Excluding the effect of currency fluctuations and Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, gross profit would have grown 10.3%, with a gross margin expansion of 70 basis points. In local currency, the benefit of lower sweetener and PET prices, in combination with Coca-Cola FEMSA’s currency hedging strategy, was partially offset by the depreciation of the average exchange rate of the Brazilian real, the Colombian peso, the Mexican peso and the Argentine peso as applied to U.S. dollar-denominated raw material costs.

 

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For Coca-Cola FEMSA, the components of cost of goods sold include raw materials (principally concentrate, sweeteners and packaging materials), depreciation costs attributable to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production facilities, wages and other labor costs at Coca-Cola FEMSA’s production facilities and certain overhead costs. Concentrate prices are determined as a percentage of the retail price of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s products in the local currency, net of applicable taxes. Packaging materials, mainly PET and aluminum, and HFCS, used as a sweetener in some countries, are denominated in U.S. dollars.

Reported administrative and selling expenses as a percentage of total revenues decreased 10 basis points to 31.7% in 2015 as compared to 2014. Reported administrative and selling expenses in absolute terms increased 3.1% as compared to 2014. Excluding the effect of currency fluctuations and the results of Coca-Cola FEMSA’s Venezuelan operations, administrative and selling expenses as a percentage of total revenues would have remained flat and absolute administrative and selling expenses would have grown 8.7% as compared to 2014. In local currency, operating expenses as a percentage of revenues decreased in Mexico, Venezuela and Argentina. In 2015, we continued investing across Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories to support marketplace execution, increase cooler coverage and bolster returnable presentation base.

In 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA recorded a net expense in other operating expenses of Ps. 1,748 million, mainly due to certain restructuring charges and the negative operating currency fluctuation effects across Coca-Cola FEMSA’s territories.

As used by Coca-Cola FEMSA, the term “comprehensive financing result” refers to the combined financial effects of net interest expenses, net financial foreign exchange gains or losses, and net gains or losses on the monetary position of hyperinflationary countries where Coca-Cola FEMSA operates. Net financial foreign exchange gains or losses represent the impact of changes in foreign exchange rates on financial assets or liabilities denominated in currencies other than local currencies and gains or losses resulting from derivative financial instruments. A financial foreign exchange loss arises if a liability is denominated in a foreign currency that appreciates relative to the local currency between the date the liability is incurred or the beginning of the period, whichever occurs first, and the date it is repaid or the end of the period, whichever occurs first, as the appreciation of the foreign currency results in an increase in the amount of local currency, which must be exchanged to repay the specified amount of the foreign currency liability.

Reported comprehensive financing result in 2015 recorded an expense of Ps. 7,273 million as compared to an expense of Ps. 6,422 million in 2014. This increase was mainly driven by a foreign exchange loss as a result of the depreciation of the end-of-period exchange rate of the Mexican peso during the year, as applied to Coca-Cola FEMSA’s U.S. dollar-denominated net debt position.

During 2015, reported income tax, as a percentage of income before taxes, was 30.6% as compared to 26% in 2014. The lower effective tax rate registered during 2014 is mainly related to a one-time benefit resulting from the settlement of certain contingent tax liabilities under the tax amnesty program offered by the Brazilian tax authorities, which was not repeated in 2015.

Coca-Cola FEMSA’s reported consolidated net controlling interest income reached Ps. 10,235 million in 2015 as compared to Ps. 10,542 million in 2014. Earnings per share in 2015 were Ps. 4.94 (Ps. 49.37 per ADS) computed on the basis of 2,072.9 million shares outstanding (each ADS represents 10 Series L shares).

In 2015, Coca-Cola FEMSA reported a gain of Ps. 155 million in the share of the profits of associates and joint ventures line, mainly due to an equity-method gain from Coca-Cola FEMSA’s participation in associated companies and in CCFPI.

 

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Table of Contents

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division

FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division total revenues increased 21.2% to Ps. 132,891 million in 2015 compared to Ps. 109,624 million in 2014, primarily as a result of the opening of 1,208 net new OXXO stores during 2015, together with an average increase in same-store sales of 6.9%, as well as the additional revenues from the acquisitions of Socofar and Farmacias Farmacon drugstores in Chile and Mexico, respectively. As of December 31, 2015, there were a total of 14,061 OXXO stores. As referenced above, FEMSA Comercio – Retail Division’s same-store sales increased an average of 6.9% compared to 2014, driven by a 5.1% increase in average customer ticket while store traffic increased 1.7%.

Cost of goods sold increased 21.9% to Ps. 85,600 million in 2015, compared with Ps. 70,238 million in 2014. Gross margin contracted 30 basis points to reach 35.6% of total revenues. This decrease was mainly driven by the integration of the Farmacias Farmacon and Socofar drugstores, both of which have lower gross margins than the OXXO operations.

Administrative expenses increased 40.5% to Ps. 2,868 million in 2015, compared with Ps. 2,042 million in 2014, reaching 2.2% of sales. Selling expenses increased 16.9% to Ps. 33,305 million in 2015 compared with Ps. 28,492 million in 2014. The increase in operating expenses was driven by (i) expenses related to the incorporation of the Socofar and Farmacias Farmacon drugstore operations, (ii) the strong organic growth in new stores across formats and (iii) the strengthening of FEMSA Comercio’ s business and organizational structure in preparation for the growth of new operations, particularly drugstores.

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division

The operations that comprise the FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division were integrated in 2015. As such, no results of operation are available for this segment for periods prior to 2015.

FEMSA Comercio – Fuel Division total revenues amounted to Ps. 18,510 million in 2015. Cost of goods sold reached Ps. 17,090 million in 2015 and administrative expenses amounted to Ps. 88 million in 2015. Selling expenses reached Ps. 1,124 millio